1.INTRODUCTION the route that is efficient and possible in

1.INTRODUCTION

 In recent years there is advancement in the
computer performance and technologies in wireless   communications. Wireless networks need ad hoc
networks in which mobile nodes can communicate over links. In MANETs, network
survivability is must because the battery capacity of the nodes get exhausted.
Thus to prolong the network lifetime the routing protocol is required to
enhance the energy of the node. Multipath routing protocols maintain routes to
flood the packets i.e., route request is sent by the source to get information
regarding the paths. MANETs can be categorized into three generations: first,
second and third generations. In 1970’s the ad hoc network first generation are
called Packet Radio Network (PRNET). In early 1980’s Survivable Adaptive Radio
Network (SURAN)is evolved from PRNET. The function group of MANETs made the
routing protocols standardized and implemented the devices like PDA’S,
palmtops, notebooks. Some standards like Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11(WLAN’S) are
developed to maintain the MANETs. For several years from 1970’s to 1990’s there
are changes in the generations of MANET i.e., finally some standards are made
to maintain the MANET. Energy efficiency is to be regarded as a factor in
MANET. Mainly the packets are transmitted based on the:

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·        
Distance
of the route

·        
Residual
Energy of the node.

                     Thus the route that is
efficient and possible in transmitting packets can be identified .Route Request
is send by the source to find the route that is efficient. All the routes   that are possible   can be find .The information about the nodes
energy level and the links are sent through the Route Reply. Whenever the link breaks
the Route Error is send. When this happens the source sends the packets through
the route to the destination without any delay. This can be done with the
multipath routing protocol which are preferred to the single path routing
protocol. In single path routing once the link breaks the packets cannot be
transmitted. Whereas in multipath routing other routes can be preferred to send
the data packets. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is the algorithm from which
the fitness function is derived. Fitness Function is mainly used to find the
optimal path.The optimum route is nothing but the route with:

·        
Less
distance and

·        
Consumes
less energy.

              The optimal path minimizes the
energy consumption and maximizes the network lifetime. Thus the proposed
FF-AOMDV performance in maximizing the network lifetime is possible compared to
the AOMDV.

 

1.1 Existing system:

 

The research proposed highlights
the problem of energy consumption in MANET by applying the Fitness Function
technique to optimize the energy consumption in Ad Hoc on Demand Multipath
Distance Vector (AOMDV) routing protocol. The proposed protocol is called Ad
Hoc on Demand Multipath Distance Vector with the Fitness Function
(FF-AOMDV).The fitness function is used to find the optimal path from the
source to the destination to reduce the energy consumption in multipath
routing.

 

1.2 AOMDV Routing protocol:

 

An on-demand routing protocol,
AOMDV has its roots in the Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV), a popular
single-path routing protocol. AOMDV offers two key services: route discovery
and route maintenance. Compared with AODV, AOMDV’s additional overhead is extra
RERRs and RREPs intended for multipath  maintenance and discovery, along with extra
fields to route control packets . Route discovery and route maintenance involve
finding multiple routes from a source to a destination node. AOMDV utilizes
three control packets: the route request (RREQ); the route reply (RREP); and
the route error (RERR).A new multipath routing protocol called the FF-AOMDV
routing protocol is proposed which is a combination of Fitness Function and the
AOMDV’s protocol. The route, which consumes less energy could possibly be (a)
the route that has the shortest distance; (b) the route with the highest level
of energy, or (c) both

x

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