1. sociology which is closely identified according to the

1.  
Theoretical
issues for tourism’s future development

 Identifying the agenda

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 Graham
M.S. Dann

Tourism development is an expression that encompasses not
only destinations, origins, motivation and impacts but also the complex
linkages that exist between all the people and institutions of that
interlocking global supply and demand system. The development of tourist’s
destinations has received little attention in the literature and
conceptualization of the process has been very limited. In few instances where
there is an optimal balance between theoretical awareness and methodological
sophistication, the sheer diversity of disciplinary approaches may well mean
that their various representatives are rarely speaking the same paradigmatic
language.

Some of the forecast trends and events are more likely
than others to have implications for tourism development. In the area of
tourism development, the analogue of Toffler is almost evident among those who
regularly engage in future research. According to the researcher there is need
to address more comprehensively a broad spectrum of tourism issues of major international
concern which are related to the fields of health, energy and education.

Formalism in sociology which is closely identified
according to the researcher adopts a happy midway position between macro and
micro theory. There are couple of recurring features of tourism development
where this type of interpretative understanding might be fruitful. Among some
researchers the practice of laying a place a table for the unexpected traveler
in a way shows that the presence of the wanderer has been anticipated in a
culture where hospitality comes spontaneously.

According to researcher the identifying future
theoretical directions in the study of tourism development is to examine
published research and in particular to focus on the beginning and conclusion of
its existing accounts. The former better known as a review of literature,
contextualizes the problem, acknowledges and related contributions.

Instead of pursuing a tourism that is rooted in an
explanatory framework which is characterized by western ethnocentrism, it is
necessary to view the phenomenon both empirically and as an international fact.

The self-appropriation of agenda is made all the more
dramatic by the use of the first person singular. More noticeable in the
anthropological treatment of tourism development than in any other social
scientific discipline.

 By examining black
holes in the literature, researcher similarly arrive at a junction epitomized
where several disciplines are simultaneously co-opted in order to yield a
combined understanding that opens itself to critical issues that for too long
have remained largely unexplored.

 

2.  
Tourism academics and tourism practitioners

Bridging the great
divide

Carson L. Jenkins

The proposition has arises from the writing and field
experience of the researcher who is full time academic has experience of
tourism policy and planning. Two major objectives of this study firstly to
invite comment and debate arising from the proposition. Second objective is to
consider ways in which the divide between academics and practitioners might be
bridged.

          There are
two groups which are the focus of this study are tourism academics and tourism
practitioners.

Tourism academics                    

Although tourism as an activity has a long tradition as
an academic subject it is a development of the 1960s. Academics have three main
characteristics based on their traditional role of being thinkers.

·     
To advance both the knowledge
and understanding of the subject.

·     
To disseminate
information via teaching, publications and conferences.

·     
Though educating and
influence students, other academics and the industry.

Much of the innovative work being done by the academics
will tend to have a very limited influence on tourism development practice
unless the academic is also a practitioner.

Practitioners

Tourism practitioners are either individual consultants
or consulting companies. Consultants unlike academics operate in a business environment
and may be identified as having three broad operational characteristics.

·     
Their work is
contractual, project specific and profit driven.

·     
Knowledge
dissemination is through project specific reports, plans and studies.

·     
They aim by the
development of expertise and reputation to secure future contract work.

Much tourism development planning is funded by
international agencies for example world bank, UN and UNDP.

Project preparation

There are basically five steps in the project cycle which
mentioned here:

1.   Project identification.

a)   Technical specification.

b)   Feasibility studies.

c)    Financial proposal.

2.   Terms of reference.

3.   Tender process.

4.   Project implementation.

5.   Project evaluation.

 

 

 

Despite the fact that much increasing funds allocated to
the tourism planning and development, very little is known about how project
methodology is chosen. There is no discussion of how a particular methodology
should be choose.  Despite of all these
issues the EU, UNO, development banks and country based donor organizations
have and continue to fund tourism projects. Methodology has a particular
significance in tourism because of its multidisciplinary nature.

To have a more central role in formulating methodology
would allow the academic a real world participatory function which should
benefit the project and experience gained would also benefit teaching and
future research. There are considerable cross over benefits to be gained by
both parties if the great divide can be effectively bridged. 

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