1. websites are becoming indispensable. When the number of

 

1. Introduction

With the tremendous growth of internet
services, websites are becoming indispensable. When the number of users gets
increased accessing the websites, the performance of the server gets down. Due
to much burden on the server, the response time gets delayed. When the process
becomes slow, the ratio of the users accessing to the site also goes down. Apart
from this, it may also happen due to the attack of Hackers.1

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In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack where the perpetrator
seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users
by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to
the Internet. Denial of
service is typically accomplished by flooding the targeted machine or resource
with superfluous requests to overload systems and prevent some or all
legitimate requests from being fulfilled.DOS attack can cause unusually slow
network performance, unavailability of a particular site and inability to
access any website.

The GI Time Frequency Algorithm among the
security algorithm is better solution. It is used to group the intruders under
the Intruders list and thus prevent them from accessing the website. First step
of the algorithm is to maintain the history of the user and the intruders list.
When the user enters into the site, the details are collected and added in the
history. Then the details are matched with the intruders list. If the match
returns true value, then the user is treated as intruder and the access is
denied. Otherwise, the details are matched with the history for finding the
occurrence of the same user under the same date. If this returns true, then the
time frequency is calculated. The time frequency is compared with the maximum
frequency. If the calculated time frequency exceeds the maximum frequency, the
user is added to the intruders list. Otherwise, their request is accepted and
the response is provided to the user.Thus the GI Time Frequency provides a
better method to block the intruders from accessing the web page.2

 

 

2. RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Specification of research questions is the
most important part of a systematic review 5. It is very critical
to ask the right questions that are meaningful and can identify and/or scope
future research activities 5. The research questions for this systematic
review have been structured with the help of the PICOC criteria as suggested by
Petticrew and Roberts.

 

Population

DOS Attacks

Intervention

Use of different algorithms for protection
against DOS attacks on network

Outcome

Secure network ,DOS attack prevention

Context

Industry,
academia

Table 1 PIOC TABLE

                                                  

In order to collect the evidence on the
current state of the research, the research questions considered are as below:

Question 1: What evidence is there for
prevention of DOS attacks techniques in network security?

Question 2: What techniques/methods have been
used for the prevention of DOS attacks in networks?

Question
2a: Which cross-validation method was used to find the accuracy of the security
algorithm for DOS attacks in networks?

Question
2b: Is there any algorithm reported to be significantly superior for prevention
of DOS attacks in networks? Which one?

Question 3: What figure of merits has been
used for prevention of DOS attacks?

 

 

3. Search Strategy

A search strategy was used to search for
primary studies. Such strategy includes search terms and resources to be
searched. Resources include digital libraries, specific journals, and
conference proceedings. We searched two digital libraries and one broad
indexing service: IEEE Computer Society Digital Library; ACM Digital Library
and SCOPUS indexing system. All searches were based on title, keywords and
abstract.

 

 3.1 Strategy for
deriving search terms

  The strategy used for deriving search terms
is as below :
i) Derive major search terms from the research questions by identifying
Population,
Intervention, Outcome, and Context; table 2.

 

Population

DOS Attacks                                                                                                      

Intervention

Algorithm , arrangement, organization,
scheme, system rules                            

Outcome

Efficiency,
Accuracy , efficient algorithm                                       

Context

develop an efficient method in order to
deny the services           
to the hackers and improve the server performance using
the DDoS technique

Table 2 Terms Derived from PIOC

ii) Find key words in the relevant papers, table 3. Note that
the studies from which we have taken the key words are not a subset of our
primary studies.

 

Afrand Agah
and Sajal K. Das`

intrusion detection, security, sensor
networks
 

K.Kuppusamy and S.Malathi 
 

Websites,
Attack, Hacker, DDoS

D.Sophia Navis Mary and A.Thasleema Begum

Aegis Algorithm, DoS Attack, Hackers, Online Vulnerability Scanner, Web Application

Neeta Sharma, Mayank Singh, Anuranjan Misra

DOS, DDOS, Security, vulnerabilities

Rutvij H. Jhaveri, Sankita J. Patel, Devesh
C. Jinwala

MANETs,
Security, DoS Attacks, Wormhole Attack;
Blackhole Attack, Grayhole Attack

Jingtang Luo, Xiaolong Yang

Denial
of Service; low-rate attack; TCP slow start

Table 3 Terms Derived from Key Words in Relevant
Papers

 

 

(iii) Find alternative spellings and Synonyms for the search terms with the
help of

       Thesaurus.

 

Intrusion

Intruption,incursion,interference

Web application

Websites, web softwares

Hacker

Intruder

Algorithm

Procedure ,process

DOSAttack

Violence , DDos Attacks

Vulnerabilities

Weaknesses, exposures,
Susceptibilities 

Security

Safety,
Protection

Table 4 Terms Derived from Alternative Spelling and
Synonyms

iv) Use
Boolean OR to construct search strings from the search terms identified in (i),
(ii), and (iii), (see table 5).

 

Intrusion OR
interruption OR incursion OR Interference

Web applications
OR websites OR web software

Hacker OR
intruder

Algorithm OR
procedure OR process

Dos attack OR
violence OR DDos  Attacks

Vulnerabilities
OR weaknesses OR exposures OR Susceptibilities

Security OR Safety OR Protection

Table 5 Construction of Terms by using Boolean OR

 

 

v) Use Boolean AND to concatenate the search terms and
restrict the research, (see table 6).

(Intrusion OR
interruption OR incursion OR Interference) AND(Web applications OR websites
OR web software)AND(Hacker OR intruder)AND(Algorithm OR procedure OR
process)AND(Dos attack OR violence OR DDos 
Attacks)AND(Vulnerabilities OR weaknesses OR exposures OR
Susceptibilities)AND(Security OR Safety
OR Protection)

 

 

3.2 Search Process and Resources

Search process for a systematic review should
be rigorous and be able to find as many relevant primary studies as possible .In
order to make the search process rigorous, this systematic review will consider
two search phases: primary/initial search phase and secondary search phase.

 

3.2.1 Primary Search Phase

The primary search phase will be directed
towards searching online databases, search engines, electronic journals,
conference proceedings, and grey literature (such as technical reports, MSc/PhD
dissertations & theses). In order to make the search process comprehensive
and to avoid the chance of missing out evidence, our searches will include
literature published from (and inclusive of) year 2006 to date. 2017 was chosen
as the start limit due to the reason that when we ran some random
searches.  This section provides the
details of the electronic searches. The rationale for choosing these resources
is:  they were used by some of the
examples of systematic reviews from the discipline of computer vision we have
come across, they were suggested by the Dr. Husnain Ali Naqvi as the resources
relevant to the subject. The detailed lists of the resources are presented
below:

 

 

 

 

Online Databases:
    

·        
IEEE XPLORE

·        
INSPEC

·        
ACM Digital Library

·        
Springer Link

·        
ScienceDirect

 

Online Search engines:

·        
CiteSeer (citeseer.ist.psu.edu)

·       
Google Scholar (scholar.google.com)

 

Individual Journals:

 

·        
International
Journal of Computer Networks (IJCN)

·        
Journal
of information science and ELSEVIER

·        
International
Journal of Network Security & Its Applications (IJNSA)

·        
International
Journal of Network Security

 

Conference

·        
IEEE
Fifth International Conference on Cloud Computing

·        
Second
International Conference on Advanced Computing & Communication Technologies

Technical Reports:

 

·        
Google search

 

 

 

 

 

Secondary
Search Phases

The secondary search will be conducted to
complement the primary search phase. The following activities will be performed
in this phase:

1. The references for the articles identified during the primary search phase
will be reviewed. This process will be iterative as the articles found relevant
will be added to the list of primary studies and this step will be performed
for each of the identified articles.

2. Citations will be reviewed for the identified primary studies and the
articles citing the identified primary studies will also be reviewed by using
backward and forward passes (as also suggested by Webster & Watson 7).
This process is also iterative in nature.

3. Specific researchers will be identified
and contacted for advice on unpublished work and technical reports.

 

Data Source

Documentation

 

Online
Databases/Digital Libraries

Name
of database
Search
strategy for database
Date
of search
Years
covered by search

IEEE
explore
Search
by keyords
12/10/2017
 

Search
Engine

Name
of search engine
Search
strategy for the search engine
Date
of search

Google
scholar
Search
by problem name
Nov
17,2017

Journal
Hand Searches

Journal
name
 
Years
covered
Any
issues not covered

International Journal of Network Security,
Vol.5, No.2, PP.145–153
 2007
 

Conference
Proceedings

Title
of Proceedings
Name
of Conference (if different)
Journal
name (if published in a journal)
Conference
Date

Second International Conference on Advanced
Computing & Communication Technologies
 
2012

PhD
Dissertations and Theses

Title
of dissertation/thesis
Publication
Year
Name
of University
URL
(if available)

 

Unpublished
studies

Research
groups and researchers contacted (contact information and date contacted)
Research
web sites searched (URL and Date)

 

Other
sources

Date
Searched/contacted
URL

Iee.com

Table 6 Procedure for Search Process Documentation

                       

4. Study Quality Assessment Criteria and Selection
Process

The intention behind assessing study quality
is to identify the primary studies that provide
direct evidence about the research question(s) 3. The quality assessment will
be done to find the actual relevance of the selected studies to answer the
research questions. Moreover, the quality criteria will be applied to help
determine which studies provide sound and reliable evidence to answer the
research questions. If a study’s quality is found to be too low, we can make a
case to remove it from the analysis given its weak evidence.

 

4.1 Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria for Study Selection

The inclusion and exclusion criteria, which
can be refined during the search process, are defined in the systematic review
protocol to minimize the bias effect which is likely to appear while conducting
the review 3. For a study to be included in the systematic review, it will
have to satisfy either of the conditions ‘a’ and ‘b’ and condition ‘c’ given
below:

a)          
The Study performs scheduling of mobile wireless network.

b)         The
study discusses real time communication.

c)         The
study performs of low power.

Note that there is no restriction on which
group of prctioners the study is related to, or whether the study deals with
experienced practioners, students or researchers. Similarly, there is no
restriction on the type of empirical study. The criteria are based solely of
their relevance to the research question.

The study dealing with the following aspects
will be excluded from the systematic review:

a) 
Where the focus is on prediction/measurement of a quality attribute
other than classification.

b) 
Where the study does not perform an empirical validation of the findings
that it presents.

 

5. Quality Assessment Checklists and
Procedure

For the assessment of study quality,
checklists for qualitative and quantitative studies have
been developed. We have developed the checklists separately as we expect to
come up with
both types of studies, which we believe would need individual attention in
terms of their quality assessment as the research methodologies adapted in both
types are different. Separate checklists also help devise more detailed
questions, which would not apply if using a single common set of questions.
These checklists are a means to assess the quality of the selected studies and
therefore their importance as evidence to answer the research questions part of
the systematic review. Note that this assessment is in terms of relevance of
evidence to answer the research questions and not to criticize any researcher’s
work. The checklists have mainly been compiled by using some of the questions suggested
by Crombie 4, Fink 5, and Petticrew 6. Note that these same questions
also appear in Kitchenham’s checklists 3 for systematic reviews, which have
been extracted from the mentioned sources. We have tailored/rephrased some of
the questions according to the needs of our systematic review. The checklists
are given in tables 9 and 10. Each of the questions given in the quantitative
and qualitative checklists will be answered according to the scale given in
table 8.

 

Answer

Score

Yes

10

No

0

Partially

5

Table 7 Scale for answering questions in quality
checklists

Therefore, the possible score for a
quantitative study will lie within a spectrum of 0 to 160, with 0 representing
very poor quality and 160 representing excellent quality; for a qualitative
study that will lie within a spectrum of 0 to 8, with 0 representing very poor
quality and 8 representing excellent quality.

 

 

5.1 Quantitative Checklists

The quantitative checklist consists of 16
questions to be used for the evaluation of quantitative studies, (see table 9).

Sr. NO

 Question

Answers

1

Are the research question(s) clearly stated
for the studies?

10

2

Does the study build upon existing body of knowledge,
i.e., does it explicitly discuss its contribution in the light of previous
work?

             05

3

Are the algorithms used in the study
clearly defined?

 

5

Are the algorithms used in the study the most relevant
ones for answering the research questions?

10

6

Are the data collection methods adequately
described?

05

8

Is the purpose of the data analysis clear?

 

9

Are potential confounders adequately
controlled in the analysis?

10

10

Are the negative findings presented?

10

11

Do the researchers discuss any problems
with the validity / reliability of their results?

0

12

Is the study replicable?

10

13

Is the research design clearly presented?

10

14

Is the research design suitable for carrying out the
study?

05

15

Are the findings credible?

 

16

Is the research process described thoroughly? Are the
roadblocks, false steps described in a helpful way?

05

Table 8 Checklist for quantitative studies

 

 

 

5.2 Qualitative Check Lists

 

The qualitative
checklist consists of 6 questions to be used for the evaluation of qualitative
studies, (see table 10).

 

Sr. No

Question

Answers

1

Is the research design suitable for
carrying out the study?

YES

2

Does the study build upon existing body of knowledge,
i.e., does it explicitly discuss its contribution in the light of previous
work?

YES

3

Does the study report clear, unambiguous
findings based on evidence and argument?

YES

4

Are the findings credible?

Partially

5

Is the research process described
thoroughly? Are the roadblocks,
false steps described in a helpful way?

Partially

6

Are the links between the data, interpretation, and
conclusions clear?

Yes

7

Is the reporting clear and coherent?

Partially

8

Are the assumptions/theoretical perspectives/values
that have shaped the form and output of the evaluation clear?

Partially

Table 9 Checklist for qualitative studies

 

 

6. Data Extraction Strategy

      
After the primary studies have been selected and their quality assessed,
the data will be extracted. The data extraction forms and the strategy to be
adopted for recording the data are given. Data is analyzed and crawled through
to retrieve relevant information from the data source in a specific pattern.
Further data processing is done, which involves adding Meta data and other data
integration and another process in the data workflow.    

 

 

6.1   Data Extraction Forms

           
  Data extraction forms are meant to contain
all the information that is necessary for answering the review questions and
addressing the study quality criteria 1. The data extraction forms designed
for the quantitative studies, table 10, and qualitative studies, table 11, are
given below.

 

Data Items

Value

Supplementary notes

Study
ID

                 1

 

Title

An Effective Prevention of Attacks Using GI
Time Frequency Algorithm Under DDOS

 

Author(s)

K.Kuppusamy,  S.Malathi

 

Year
of Publication

2011

 

Reference
Type

journal

 

Publisher

IEEE Explorer

 

Country
of Study

 

 

Application
Domain

Computer
society

 

Study
Setting

University

 

Type
of Study

Algorithmic
approach

 

­­­Data To extract and use to answer research questions

What definitions of DOS attacks are used?

denial-of-service
attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack where
the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to
its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a
host connected to the Internet

 

What type of algorithm was discussed?

GI Time Frequency Algorithm(netwok
security  Algorithm)

 

What cross-validation method was used?

optimistic

 

Are there any significant claims made by
the study?
 

yes

 

Quantitative Study Quality Assessment 

Are the research question(s) clearly stated for the
studies?

10

 

Does the study build upon existing body of knowledge,
i.e., does it explicitly discuss its contribution in the light of previous
work?

10

 

x

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