Abstract to electric vehicles. I’ve researched upon electric cars

Abstract

My research
paper talks about what an electric car is and what its functions are. Due to problems
caused by the gasoline engine on the environment and people, automotive
industry has turned to electric vehicles. I’ve researched upon electric cars to
find out what makes it work so smoothly while making the car lighter than its
counterparts, the gasoline engine. The electric cars are the future of cars.
Brief View of the technology is given.

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INTRODUCTION

Electrical
cars are easily taking over the market. They are efficient and pollution free.
It is environment friendly as it is C02 free emission.

Cars produce a lot of carbon emissions that are ejected into our natural atmosphere, leaving
us vulnerable to things like pollution and greenhouse gases.

In order to help positively the
environment we live in, an electric car is a great step forward.

 By buying an electric car, you can also
receive government subsidies for being environmentally conscious.

Although you may end up paying more for
your vehicle, the positives greatly overshadow the negatives. 1

Electrical cars have various components
in them that make them run smooth and have good speed with it.

Today ill discuss about the important
components in the electrical car and the advantages and disadvantages In it.

 

 

 

 

What is an Electrical
car?

An electrical car (EV) is an automobile
that is propelled by one or more motors. Electric motors give electric cars
instant torque,creating strong and smooth acceleration.The electric car is a relatively new concept in the world of the automotive
industry. Although some companies have based their entire model of cars around
being proactive and using electricity, some also offer hybrid vehicles that work off both electricity and gas.

Electrical vehicles get their power
from rechargeable batteries installed inside the car. These batteries are not
only used to power the car but also used for the functioning of lights and
wipers. Electric cars have more batteries than normal gasoline car. It’s the
same kind of batteries that are commonly used when starting up a gasoline
engine. The only difference comes in the fact that in electric vehicles, they
have more of them which are used to power the engine.1

 

Important Components of
Electrical car

 

BATTERY:

A battery is the most important
component of the Electric car.

Without this, the electric car is
not functional.

There are several types of
batteries such as NiMH and lead acid batteries and replacing the lead-acid batteries with NiMH batteries will
double the range of the car and the batteries will last 10 years. But the cost
of the batteries today is 10 to 15 times greater than lead-acid. In other
words, an NiMH battery pack will cost $20,000 to $30,000 (today) instead of
$2,000. Electric cars will have significantly better range at that point.1

An electric car has a normal 12-volt lead-acid battery to
power all of the accessories. To keep the battery charged, an electric car
needs a DC-to-DC converter.
This converter takes in the DC power from the main battery array (at, for
example, 300 volts DC) and converts it down to 12 volts to recharge the
accessory battery.1

Any electric car that
uses batteries needs a charging system to recharge the
batteries. The charging system has two goals:

·       
To pump
electricity into the batteries as quickly as the batteries will allow

·       
To
monitor the batteries and avoid damaging them during the charging process.2

 

 

The motor controller:

The
motor controller monitors and helps to regular all key performance indicators,
including those from the vehicle’s operator, motor, battery, accelerator pedal,
and more. Equipped with a powerful microprocessor, it can limit or redirect
current – either to improve the mechanical performance of the device or suit
the operator’s driving style. Generally, more controllers are capable of
greater precision and thus, higher efficiency. 2

 

The Electric Engine:

Electric
engines can be made to use either AC or DC current. AC motors tend to be less
expensive and lighter than DC engines, reaching about 95% efficiency at full
load compared to the 85%-95% attained by AC engines. AC engines are more common
in other types of electrical devices. 2

 

Regenerative braking:

It
gives more range to an electric vehicle. Regenerative braking has been adopted
in virtually all hybrid and BEV models on the road today. It allows the
extraction of energy from the braked components so it can be reused rather than
wasted. When the operator applies the brake, the electric motor goes into
reverse mode, allowing the motor itself to do most of the “braking” and thus
prevent more kinetic energy from being lost. 2

 

 

ADVANTAGES
OF USING ELECTRICAL CARS:

 

Zero
tailpipe emissions:

Zero means no exhaust – nothing to pollute
the air and adversely affect health, or add greenhouse gases to the
environment. This is a clear-cut advantage over gas cars 

 

Reduced maintenance:

Electric vehicles have fewer moving
parts, and maintenance intervals like oil changes, spark plug replacement, and
other services required by a complex internal combustion engine and
transmission.

They have regenerative braking which
returns energy to the battery, and spares the friction brakes, so brake pad,
rotor, caliper and other maintenance is less frequent typically, as well

Less noise while driving:

While other cars make weird and loud
noises (depends from car to car), electrical cars are on the quiet side where
they give you instant torque and a calm and silent drive without making any
noises.

SUBSIZED:

Gasoline cars are cheaper, but they get zip,
and free money is OK. Some people object to that, and they are entitled to
this, but this society otherwise has said it wants to reward and encourage EV
adopters, so the authorities smile on it, even if others don’t.4

 

DISADVANTAGES:

1 The main disadvantages of electric car
ownership concern range anxiety: the fear you’ll run out of juice when you’re
nowhere near a charging station. Both the Ford Focus Electric and Nissan Leaf
offer a range of approximately 75 miles. For most drivers, that’s more than
enough to get around — but many will require a second car, if only to calm
their nerves.

2 Another big disadvantage is that many
drivers will have to install a charging station at home. It’s not necessary,
however, as you can simply charge your EV at work or at various public charging
stations. But most shoppers will want a charging station at home, cutting into
the cost savings from owning an EV in the first place.

3 Electrical vehicles ownership
eliminates many maintenance hassles, such as oil changes, it can also lead to
big expenses. These are mostly because of batteries mounted in modern electric
vehicles. Overall battery life is expected to be around a decade, and
replacement battery packs can be costly. Most estimates put them well into the
thousands of dollars.

4 EV ownership doesn’t eliminate fuel
costs entirely. As mentioned, electricity isn’t free — and charging during
peak hours can add to your utility bills. Still, many drivers won’t see costs
increase more than $20 per month, at most.5

 

 

 

EXAMPLE

TESLA: The future of
cars

TESLA
unveiled the new Roadster at the Semi truck launch. The roadster promises huge
electric car range of over 600 miles, unchallenged 0-60mph acceleration speeds
and dynamic styling.

Tesla
had another surprise in store at the Semi
Truck launch –
the unveiling of the new Roadster. 

Tesla
Semi truck
blew fans away with its incredible design, 500 miles of range and Bugatti
Chiron beating drag efficiency. 

However, Tesla also confirmed that it
is making a Roadster 2.0.

It has become the fastest production
car ever made with a 0-60mph time of 1.9 seconds and 0-100 mph in 4.2
seconds. 

A top speed for the Roadster 2.0 is 250
miles per hour 

The current world’s fastest car has a
top speed of 277.7mph. 

This top speed beats cars such as the
Koenigsegg CCR, McLaren F1, Bugatti Veyron and the Ferrari LaFerrari. 6

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION:

According
to me, electric cars have already started revolutionalising the world of cars
but on the other had it still is very expensive and needs some more improvements
to make it unbeatable in this world full of gasoline cars.

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