CHAPTER time, and almost no interferences, but it have

CHAPTER II

 

REVIEW OF LITERATURES

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Review of Literatures

2.1 History

2.1.1Infsoft Smart Connected Locations

In 2015, Infsoft
Smart Connected Locations Company has made a solution for indoor positioning by
using Bluetooth and Wi-Fi 5. By the time they detect that Bluetooth is much
better than the Wi-Fi for many reasons such as accuracy, battery life time, and
cost.

They start to use
UWB it has many advantages like high accuracy, low latency of time, and almost
no interferences, but it have some disadvantages such as cost intensive and
shorter life time battery than BLE beacons. They also try to use RFID and it
showed some Advantage like very high accuracy, no interferences and no battery
needed. The main disadvantage of RFID is that have very short range (less than
1m) so it’s a bad choice. Other disadvantage that the installation requires
significant planner and infrastructure can be expensive and need many number of
RFID to cover a small room which have high cost .

Table
2.1 Types of Beacons and its properties

 

2.1.1.1 Advantages

·        
Cost-effective,
unremarkable hardware

·        
Low
energy consumption

·        
Flexible
integration into the existing infrastructure (battery-powered or power supply
via lamps and the domestic electrical system)

·        
Works
where other positioning techniques do not have a signal

·        
Compatible
with  iOS and Android

·        
High
accuracy compared to Wi-Fi (up to 1m)

2.1.1.2 Disadvantages

·        
Additional hardware

·        
App is required for
client based solutions

·        
Relatively small
range

 

2.2 Available Technologies

 

The technologies used today
for indoor positioning differ in terms of accuracy, costs and effort, but have
improved quickly in the last couple of years.

2.2.1 Bluetooth Low Energy

Bluetooth
Low strength (BLE) alerts from
battery pushed beacons are at the center of the
indoor region generation. It’s one of
the latest technology that has emerged and end up an industry popular to
be had on most gadgets today. It makes use
of so known as BLE beacons which are inexpensive, small,
have an extended battery lifestyles and do now
not require an external electricity supply 36.
The tool detects the sign from the beacon and
may calculate more or less the space to the beacon
and therefore estimate the area.

2.2.2 Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi can be used in a similar way as BLE beacons, but
requires an external power source, more setup costs and pricy equipment 7.and
from Wi-Fi Advantage the signal is stronger and it can cover more distance than
BLE.

 

2.2.3 Magnetic Field Detection

Magnetic
field detection using the compass sensor on a device can also
be used for indoor positioning. A so called “fingerprinting” technology is used
to map the magnetic fields on the venue and then the device can use that map to
find its location indoors.  This technology can only be applied in certain
circumstances where the magnetic fields indoor are stable.

 

 

 

2.2.4 Near Field Communication

The NFC (Near Field
Communication) technology consists of
small chips that do not require a power source Which is one of these advantage and
the device will detect the chip and read its serial number if the device is
within 30 cm away from the chip which is too low range and consider from this
disadvantage. This technology is being applied now in Point Of Sale(POS)
systems but can as well be used for precise indoor positioning within 30 cm.
 The NFC technology is only available on newer phones so it will take some
time for it to take a foothold 8. It will replace the conventional QR codes
as it is more convenient because QR codes need to be visible and require a good
light and camera.

2.2.5 Gyroscope and Accelerator meter

A gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining
orientation, based on the principles of conservation of angular momentum. Most
smart phones have a built in gyroscope and compass 8. The device can use
this information in addition to the other technologies mentioned for even more
precise positioning.

 

 

After studding and
comparing the technologies. We decided to enter indoor positioning market with
BLE technology because it is reliable, accurate enough, easy to maintain and
requires little installation work.

2.3 Current Alternative System

Indoor positioning technology is becoming commercially available in
various forms and quality this year. It’s a jungle out there and no one proven
method has been sufficient for all purposes unlike the outdoor positioning with
the use of GPS satellite technology.

Positioning
systems have played a major role in people’s lives since the GPS satellite
technology became publicly available in the late 90’s. Today
almost everyone has a device with positioning capabilities like smart
phones, tablet, GPS tracking device or a watch with built-in
GPS.The GPS revolutionized outdoor positioning. Now 15 years later, the
positioning technology goes indoor and new possibilities emerge for indoor use.
Satellite-based positioning doesn’t work indoor, but other technological
standards have emerged that make indoor positioning possible. Positioning
indoor is more complicated than outdoor positioning using GPS because
a certain infrastructure needs to be in place indoor.  GPS signals don’t
work indoors or in narrow streets as they tend to attenuate and scatter by
roofs and walls.

 

 

2.3.1 Locatify

 

At Locatify They decided to enter indoor positioning market
with BLE technology because it is reliable, accurate enough, easy to maintain
and requires little installation work. They are also committed to further
develop the system integrating other technologies for indoor positioning.

2.3.1.1    Methodology (Positioning the User)

 

BLE beacons are the cornerstones of indoor positioning.
 With this technology, The Range can be detected by BLE Beacons .Last
couple of years positioning are based on BLE devices. First prototypes were
only able to detect which Beacon is closest to the user, but today They are
able to use distance data from many beacons and position the user in 2D space
on indoor map 8.

This technology will develop further offering even more
precise positioning. This will be achieved by utilizing as well the use of
magnetic field detection, gyroscope, accelerator meter and Near Field
Communication (NFC) chips.

 

 

2.3.1.2    Advantages

They decide to use BLE positioning systems to provide
better experience to their visitors or customers. Benefits can get for many
organizations by using location based system. For example:

Museums
can deliver location-based map of a venue to visitors, which provide
navigation and interactive learning.
In retail,
indoor positioning systems can be used for location-based advertising,
navigation and delivery of other location-based content to customers.
Hospitals
and even airports could benefit by location-based data including turn by
turn navigation.

The CMS web interface is used by
organisations to manage their content, beacons and venue maps. A CMS is
frequently a hosted software service and keeps track of every piece of
content in the app which visitors or customers use. A fully functional CMS is
necessary for organizations because it gives them a complete control over the
content that the users will see the CMS can also provide analytical reports.
For example how the visitor traverses through the venue and how much time they
spend at the specific locations.

Fig 2.2 CMS – BLE Indoor Positioning System

 

 

2.3.1.3    Disadvantage (Accuracy)

Although BLE beacons are not expensive, easy to operate and
setup, the distance calculation is inaccurate enough for all situations and the
setup depends on some environmental factors such as signal reflection and blocking
the signal

By measuring the strength of the signal RSSI from the
beacon the Smartphone estimates the distance to the beacon. Using signal
strength for estimating distance is the not an advantage of the technology for
getting distance measurements. The signal strength drops quickly for the first
2 meters away, making it relatively accurate at those distances, but the
further away you go from the beacon, the less accurate the distance measurement
gets. Environmental factors such as reflections and physical blocking also
affect the strength of the signal, and hence the distance calculation.

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