al-Sindiyana — السِنْديانَة
Average Elevation
125 m
Distance from Haifa
29 km
Year Arab Total
1931 * 923
1944/45 1250
Land Ownership (1944/45) in dunums
Year Arab Jewish Public Total
1944/45 9706 864 4602 15172
Land Use (1944/45) in dunums
Use Arab Jewish Public Total
Non-Cultivable & Built-up (Total)
Use Arab Public Total
Non-Cultivable 1844 4602 6446
Built-up 24
1868 4602 6470 (43%)
Cultivable (Total)
Use Arab Jewish Total
Cereal 7313 864 8177
Plantation and Irrigable 525 525
7838 864 8702 (57%)
Number of Houses (1931)

The village was situated on two small hills southeast of the foothills of Mount Carmel, on the edge of the area known as the bilad al-rawha', 'the country of fragrant vines' (see Daliyat al-Rawha', Haifa sub-disctrict). The outline of the larger hill was circular, while that of the smaller, to the east, was more elongated and was oriented in a northwest-southeast direction. Secondary roads linked al-Sindiyana to neighboring villages as well as to a highway that fed the coastal highway. Its name meant 'oak tree' in Arabic. The original inhabitants came from two neighboring villages, Umm al-Fahm and Arraba, and founded the village over two centuries ago.

In the late nineteenth century, al-Sindiyana was situated on high ground with a spring below it. It had an estimated 300 residents cultivating 22 faddans (1 faddan = 100-250 dunums).  Its houses were made of masonry. AI-Sindiyana had a boys' elementary school with an enrollment of 200 students in 1942/43. Its numerous springs and wells provided water for both domestic use and irrigation. The villagers obtained their livelihood from agriculture and animal husbandry, growing mainly grain and vegetables, especially tomatoes. In 1944/45 a total of 7,313 dunums was allotted to cereals; 525 dunums were irrigated or used for orchards, of which 200 dunums were used for olives. The archaeological site of al-Khirba lay about 2 km southwest of al-Sindiyana. It is reported to contain building foundations, and pottery and tesserae have been seen on its surface. Somewhat more distant was Khirbat Rusaysa  which with its mosaics, rock-cut wine press, and columns suggested Roman-Byzantine settlement.

The settlement of Avi'el  was established in 1949 on village lands southwest of the village site.

The site is fenced in with barbed wire. Scattered piles of stones, the debris of destroyed houses, are visible among thorns, cactuses and fig, olive, and palm trees. The surrounding lands are used by Israelis as a grazing area.