Family: are most poisonous in United Kingdom. A small

Family: Apiaceae

Ø 
Species
name: conium maculate (hemlock).

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(s)

Scientific name: spotted, bloched.

Habit:

Perennial herbs
of the umbel family

v
Local
uses and chemical constituent:

It
is a poisonous plant but 100 herbaceous species are present in northern and
western europe.this family can easily recognized as a group because of their
typical habit.

2).conium
maculantum is an alkaloid content that act as a poisonous plant .it also called
death of Socrates”OR”cup of hemlock”.two types of compound are effective in
this species that’s compound are (polyenes and furanocoumarins) 24.

Conium
maculantum have two genera (cicuta and oenanthe).they are most poisonous in United
Kingdom. A small amount of plant ingestion may cause CNS stimulatory effects
including seizures that in the absence of aggressive supportive care can result
in death. Some other features may also
included nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, tachycardia, mydriasis, rhabdomyolysis,
renal failure, coma, respiratory impairment, and cardiac dysrhythmias.
So poisoning occurs due to water hemlock 25.

Family: Araceae

Ø 
Species
name: dieffenbachia pichta

(t)

Local name: dumb cane

Habit:

A
long lived, evergreen, perennial herbs growing to height of 1 to 1.5 meter.10
to 20cm wide.

v
Local
uses and chemical constituent:

Dieffenbachia
is used as an ornamental of garden plants or as a house plant. But they are
most poisonous due to irritating of skin and dermatitis can develop in people
who handle these plants frequently.

(2).This
family contains unidentified volatile compounds that are highly irritative or corrosive.
But most acute poisoning is its species that are Dieffenbachia picta exhibited
as severe salivation, burning and pain of the oral cavity, mucosal edema and
blistering. The whole plant is very poisonous 26.

(3In
dieffenbachia species have been carried out many chemical constituent that are
widely divergent.saponins, glycosides, alkaloids, proteolytic enzymes, protein
like substances, and cyanogenic glycosides as possible as toxic constituent. Dieffenbachia
has low calcium oxalate 27.

Species name: lolium temulentum l.

(u)

Local name: mochni

English name: darnel

Habit:

Erect
grass bearing green spikes on a straight axis

Local uses and chemical constituent:

It
mostly used in wild grass. It grows as a weed under various grain crops but also
along verges and on waste ground. So the poisonous part is a fruit of darnel.

 By chemical constituent much cited alkaloid is
loline, perloline etc.that have been produced by fungal attack. They have been
contaminated flour cause trouble in GIS, CNS, and cardiac weakness.

Its
part that may cause more harm is seeds.

Family:poaceae

Ø 
Species
name: trisetum flavescens

(v)

English name: yellow oat

Habit:

 

v
Local
uses and chemical constituent:

The
grass is being toxic to livestock and causing calcinosis.the deposition of
calcium in soft tissue including muscle and tendons, the heart and large
arteries including the aorta.

By
Trisetum flavescenes cattle and horses also suffer this toxicity.

The
symptoms of illness are those of vitamin D3 hypervitaminosis and deposition of
calcium phosphate in the tissues of animals 28.

 

Ø  Species name: phragmites karaka (Retz.)Trine ex. Steud

 

 

(w)

English name: tall reed

Local name:

Nal,
Drogg, masolk, narrh, nal (Bl.Br.), Nalu.

Habit:

Perennial
weed, with creeping rhizomes. Culms erect, up to 10m high.

v
Local
uses and chemical constituent:

Qasim
et al. 2010 reported that this grass is used as a fodder in labella reigon.Its
plant is act as xerophytes.

It
is also said to be a poisonous to cattle 33.

Family: poaceae

Ø
Species name:
sorghum helepense (L.)pers.

English name: Johnson grass

Local name:

Gomaaz,
baru, Baran, jowari (lasi).

Habit:

Rhizomatous
perennial, culms simple or sometimes branches, 0.5 to 3 m high or more,
selender to rather stout, leaf blade is 20-90 cm length

Local uses and chemical constituent:

It
mostly found in dry open habitat. Because its plant species mostly grow at
tropical region or in warm temperature.

Plant
tissue contains hydrocyanic acid which shows a positive danger to livestock.

In some conditions
S.helepense is poisonous to livestock.

33. Species: melica
persica kunth, Rev.Gram.

(y)

Local name: lewanai butae (pash.)

Habit:                                                

Rhizomatous
perennial forming clumps upto 45cm across, culms 15-50cm high, erect or
ascending

Local uses:

This
grass is used as fodder and this plant species is common among bushes

Stewart
and santapau reported that it may be a poisonous but Helen crook shank noted
that it is heavily grazed 13.

.Family: verbenaceae

 Species name: duranta repens L.

(z)

English name: golden dewdrop

Habit:

Busy
shrub with small, blue flower

Local uses and chemical constituent:

it
cultivated as hedge plant.

Its
part that causing harmness in plant is a fruit. Its chemical constituent is A
Saponin.

Its
symptom that occurs by toxicity is a insomnia, fever and convulsions, sometimes
fatal 1.

Family: amaryllidecea

22. Species name:
narcissus tazetta L.

(A)

Local name: paper white, joss flower

English name: narcissus

Habit:

  Perennial herb Bulberiferous herb bearing
white-yellow flower

Local uses and chemical constituent:

Narcissus tazetta is grown commercially for its essential oil,
mostly in southern france.it offen cultivated for its flowers.

Daffodil
plant that include in emesis, colic(abdominal pain) and diarrhea within one
hour digestion, muscular weakness,hypotension,contact dermatitis, blistering on
tongue and throat36.

Its
chemical constituent is alkaloid narcissine.

 Species name: narcissus pseudo-narcissus (daffodil)

Local name: lenty lily

(B)

Local uses and chemical constituent:

Poisoning
occurs mainly in eating bulbs. So daffodil should not be kept in kitchen
because the patient confused with onion. So ”don’t eat the daffodils”

So
amaryllideacae alkaloid that is responsible for dermatitis, they also have
slight sensitizing effect.

Family: Meliaceae

. Species name: melia
azedarach L.

(C)

Local name:

Bakaur,
bakain, senjid-i-talkh (Persian).

English name:

Chinaberry
tree, white cedar.

Habit:  

Tree,
upto 12m tall.

Local uses and chemical constituent:

The
toxic principle from the fruits when eating then causes different symptoms is,
vomiting diarrhea, sweating and cramps.

In
animals causes poisoning after feeding a fruits that had fallen to the ground
refer to dogs

Its
chemical constituent isolated bitter tasting tetranortriterpenes 40-41.

 Fruits are poisonous to humans if human eats a
large quantity of this fruit. The toxins are neurotoxins and unidentified
resins. The first symptom of poisoning occurs in a few hours after intake. The
symptoms of poisoning are loss of appetite, vomiting, constipation or diarrhea,
bloody faeces, stomach pain, pulmonary congestion, cardiac arrest, rigidity,
lack of coordination and general weakness. Death may take place after about 24
hours 42.

Family: papaveraceae

26. Species name:
papver somniferous L.  

(D)

Local name: post

English name: opium poppy

Habit:

Herbaceous
annual or perennial, erect annual herb bearing pretty red or white flower

Local uses and chemical constituent:

Its
plant part that causing harm is latex from unripe fruits and other parts.

It
used as cultivated or ornamental in most part of the country.

The
alkaloid and non alkaloid constituent of poppy family are responsible for
pharmalogoiacl effects its chemical constituent is (alkaloid, morphine,
narcotine, codeine, papaverine, and thebaine.

By
toxicity causing narcotic state, extremely slow respiration, pin point pupils,
death due to respiratory failure 44.

Family: Oxalidaceae

27. Species name:
oxalis corniculata L. and oxalis
pes-carprae L

 

(E)

Local name: khatti booti, Amlika

English name: yellow, sorrel

Habit:

Small,
delicate, herbs bearing trifoliate leaves and yellow flower

Local uses and chemical constituent:

In
these both plant causing harmness in whole entire plant. Firstly we can use as
an ornamental plant or as a cultivated but it is very common herb.

By
these poisonous plants harmful effects are hypocalcaemia, trembling,
staggering.prolonged used of small quantities that causing deposition of
calcium –oxalate in the kidney 43.

Family: cannabaceae

 Species name: cannabis sativa l.

(F)

Local name: bhang, charas

English name: Indian hemp, marijuana

Habit:

Erect annual herb with small, green
flower.

Local uses and chemical constituent:

It
is very common wild herbs that mostly grow at hilly areas. Whole plant is
poisonous especially the seeds.

After
poisoning its symptom retching, pain in the abdomen and occasionally vomiting
and giddiness.

Its
chemical constituent is a fixed oil in the seeds and glycosides butrin of the
flower sap1.

Family: Boraginaceae

29. Species name:
heliotropium europaeum var.lasiocarpum (F&M.)Kazmi.

(G)

 

English name: European
heliotrope

Local name: Poput, kapothchum (BL.).

Habit:

Annual,
50 cm or tall, branched

Local uses and chemical constituent:

It
comes from the Mediterranean reigon, particularly indicine and acetylindicine
and their N-oxides

Heliotropium
eurpaeum contains pyrrolizidine alkaloid which is more poisonous.pyrrolizidine
alkaloid are carcinogenic and genotoxic phytochemical that found in angiosperms.
This plant is more toxic in man and livestock and mainly in the liver 44.

Its
clinical signs are salivation, vomiting, and diarrhea due to parasympathetic
stimulation, weakness, twitching, and possible convulsions, progressing to depression.
The oral toxicity occur in mules, dogs, cats, cattles and in humans 45.

Family: amaranthaceae

31. Botanical name:
Amaranthus retroflex

(H)

 Habitat: waste place and cultivated fields.

Local uses and chemical constituent:

Its
clinical signs included depression, loss of weight, mild serious nasal
discharge and incoordinated walking, subcutanaeous dependent edema 46.

Oxalates
and nitrates are present in pigweed. Oxalates and many other unidentified
compounds in Amaranthus spp.it may cause kidney tubular nephrosis and death of
the animal. The soluble oxalates in the plant are absorbed from the
gastrointestinal tract and joined with calcium in the blood to produce
insoluble calcium oxalate. The calcium oxalate is then filtered by the kidney where
it may cause an oxalate nephrosis and kidney failure. Pigweed contain more
than  30% oxalate in the dried plant and
ruminants eating large amounts of the plant are also poisoned especially if
they have not been suppressed   to high
levels of oxalates previously47.

Family: poaceae

33. Species: melica
persica kunth, Rev.Gram.

(I)

Local name: lewanai butae (pash.)

Habit:                                                

Rhizomatous
perennial forming clumps upto 45cm across, culms 15-50cm high, erect or
ascending

Local uses:

This
grass is used as fodder and this plant species is common among bushes

Stewart
and santapau reported that it may be a poisonous but Helen crook shank noted
that it is heavily grazed 13.

.

Family: papiloinaceae

Local name: kandairi

(J)

Local uses and chemical constituent:

Its seed are very poisonous and they are used to expel worms
from stomach and larvae from ulcer

Its
Chemical constituents that have Flowers contain butin, 7-glucoside and 3-B-D glycoside.
Gum from bark that contains leucocyanidin. Seeds contain palasinin, aleuronic
acid, jalaric acid, laccijalaric acid, cantharic n-heneicosanic acid and
monospermin 49.

Family: liliaceae

Scientific name: gloriosa superb L.

(K)

Local name: kankasani

Local uses and chemical constituent:

Its poisonous
part is root.

Family: liliaceae

Botanica name: zigadenus spp.

 Common
name: death camas

(l)

Habit:

 Perennial, hairless, moist mountain valleys to
the sandy hills and plains.

Local uses and chemical constituent:

Its bulb and mature leaves are most toxic .the alkaloid has
potent hypertensive activity. But sheep show high poisoning after eating as
little as ½ of the green plants.

Its poisoning symptom is excessive salivation, vomiting,
muscular weakness, ataxia and prostration occurs with death camas50.

Family: Asparagaceae

Local name:hyacinth

v Scientific name:hyacinthus orientalis

(M)

Habit: herbaceous flowering plant.

Local use and chemical constituent:

Its poisonous part of this species s bud, flower and leaves.
Its flower grows around the spike like stem.

It should be more toxic under and should be ingested under
different circumstances.

Its chemical constituent is an oxalic acid that is more
poisonous. Its toxicity symptom is nausea, depression, tremors, diarrhea,
vomiting and colic.

Family: juglandaceae

Local name: black walnut

Scientific name: juglans nigra

 

Habit:

Allelopathic,cultivated and a desirable taste

Local use and chemical constituent:

 

The tannin are present in walnuts that act as a moderant,
aiding in dying process and useable in dark ink or wood strain.

Its poisonous effect on mostly animals. Horses are most affected
when horses’ thesaurus on wood contains more than 20% of black walnut; its
symptoms are laminitis (inflammation of the laminae in hoof) that occurs in 24 hours.
So effected horse become unable to move its, are depressed, may exhibit limb
edema and signs of laminitis. Horses on pasture may show mild respiratory signs
from pollen or falling leaves.

Poisoning in dogs occurs when seed hulls are consumed,
causing stomach upset and diarrhea.

The toxin laminitis not been clearly identified.juglone is
produced by the trees which limits the growth of plants. Black walnuts are also
most affected to earthworms.

Family: loganiaceae

Scientific name: strychnos nux-vomica

Common name: poison nut, bitter nut

Local uses and chemical constituent:

Strychnine is obtained from seeds of either strychnos nux vomica,
because of its reflex –stimulating effect. Its therapeutic application is very
rare.

Its chemical constituent which contain bis-quaternary indol
alkaloids with muscles relaxing effect.

Its symptom appears within 15-30 minutes of ingestion.
Twitching of muscle of neck,body and limbs. Actually death is caused by
muscular paralysis90.

Family: urticaceae

Scientific name: urtica dioica

Common name: common nettle

Local uses and chemical constituent:

Their poisonous parts are hair like structure on leaves the
upper part of elongated hair cells end in small, slanting head. Its hair can
easily penetrate human skin and inject part of their content into wound.

Its chemical constituent is acetyl choline; histamine and
serotonin are responsible for sometime long lasting effect92.

Family:Amaranthaceae

Scientific name: atriplex spp.

Common name: salt bush

Habitat: dry plains and foothills, usually on alkaline
soils

Local uses and chemical constituent:

Saltbush will accumulate at high level of
selenium when growing in selenium rich –soils.Animals are effected mostly at
horses,cattle and sheep .selenium cause abnormal hair and hoof formationas a
result of sulfur in keratin92.

x

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