Fresh century, it feels tremendous stress on our scarce

Fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource, and is essential to sustain life, development and the environment.  “Jheel Se Jal, Jal Se Jeevan” is modern concept of rainwater resource utilization. Water is a vital resource for the socio-economic development of river-basin areas.  As India has entered into 21st century, it feels tremendous stress on our scarce natural resources. Unless nation’s water resources are conserved and judiciously managed with care, short term water crisis might grow to become larger regional disaster, injuring economic growth and political stability. Hence environmental action plan for both agricultural and industrial water demands in developing countries like India should be developed to meet continuously increasing and competing water needs.            Our national planners after experimenting with irrigation projects for last 50 years finally concluded that our country will flourish and its integrated development is only possible if, proper attention is given for proper planning of available water resources utilization in dry land areas. Much attention and effort have been placed upon the planning, design, and operation of water resources systems, because of their importance to national welfare. Proper water resources management requires consideration of both supply and demand. The mismatch of supply and demand over time and space has motivated the development of much of the water resources infrastructure that is in place today. The goal of sustainable water management is to promote water use in such a way that society’s needs are both met to the extent possible now and in the future. This involves protecting and conserving water resources that will be needed for future generations. The dependence of India’s agriculture on the south-west monsoon and its consequent vulnerability has been recognized from the earliest times. Almost three-fourth of the cultivated area in India is unirrigated and is responsible for the major annual fluctuations in crop production. Water is main limiting factor in improving the crop productivity in unirrigated areas. Hence, it is important to predict the rainfall by analysis of rainfall using the daily rainfall data. The information thus generated about a region is extremely valuable in deciding cropping pattern, agricultural operations in rainfed farming, crop varieties and date of sowing. One of the common analyses in hydrology is surface runoff estimation in a watershed based on rainfall distribution. Regarding watersheds real situation due to lack of sufficient data in one hand and complexity of hydrological systems on the other hand causes inevitable use of rainfall-runoff simulation models. Since measurement of all parameters affect watershed’s runoff is impossible, choosing a suitable model with simple structure, minimum input data requirements and reasonable precision is essential.

Prior to planning for available water resources, it is advisable to study the water balance of the reservoirs. It gives extent of inflows and outflows and helps in quantify surpluses. This knowledge helps in planning for impounding or stocking these surpluses so as to use them during periods of deficits. It helps in adopting some techniques or the other artificial ground water recharge wherever need arises. It also helps in scheduling of irrigation for giving supplemental irrigations. Efficient utilization of water resources is crucial in our effort to increase agricultural production. Almost three-fourth of the cultivated area in India is unirrigated and is responsible for the major annual fluctuations in crop production. Water is main limiting factor in improving the crop productivity in unirrigated areas.

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