Introduction language teaching to spread the English as an

Introduction

 

In recent days, as an issue of applied linguisticsM1 , English
as an International language (EIL) has now turned as one of the major subject
terms for researcherM2  because
English is now considered as International language. Nearly 75% of M3 the
English language users in the world are non-native speakers. As a result,
today’s English users are now taking the control of the conventional ownership
of EnglishM4 . This is
also obvious that till today many teaching and learning methods of EIL have
been proposed by numerous researchers but in Bangladesh very few researches
have been conducted to understand the real situation of English language
teaching to spread the English as an international language and this is nearly
same for most of the countries where English is taken as a foreign language.M5  The teachers’
and students’ role for learning a new language is still lacking some basic
points and they are also getting obstructed by some of the common phenomena for
which here in Bangladesh teaching and learning English becomes very difficult.
This research investigates how Bangladeshi college students and teachers perceive
the issues related to EIL. Based on 30 responded questionnaires from college English
teachers and 100 from college students, this study presents a collective data of
Bangladeshi non native English speaking teachers’ and learners’ attitudes
towards the position, scopes and problems of EIL. M6 

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Why EIL is
important issue for us

 

 

Now
Bangladeshis are using English for international and Intra-national
communication more than any other language in the world. So we determine
English as the lingua franca for communication across nations and cultures.
English is most desired second or foreign language not only in Bangladesh but
also to most of the countries in the world. English is used as a major communicative
language in the workplace, international trade, global media, tourism,
business, education, technology, and on diplomatic occasions. Everywhere in the
world, English has no alternative today. That is why the centre of English is
de-centering itself.M7 

 

As a developing and dependent economy, we are
mainly dependent on English as a means of communication for international purpose
and to get intra-national recognition. This resulted in learning English as a
must. If we could initiate the learning from school level then the teaching and
learning at the college stage would have much better than now it is. M8 

 

 

Teaching
English as an International/ foreign Language in Bangladesh

 

 

New pedagogies of teaching EIL have
been suggested to cope up with the fast spreading language but those teaching
instructions are yet to be taken in Bangladesh. We are now considering the
present situation of our college level where non native English teacher are teaching
to the non native English speaker who uses Bangla in everywhere even at the
time of teaching and learning in classroom . ThisM9 
consequences a bangali environment where English remains foreign language and
students do
not understand the value English as an International M10 language. Some recent surveys on the teachers
and students of a college in Dhaka and Feni find that teaching measures in
college level
are not really going with levels which are suggested by the experts. this
paper tries to point out some major issues which are having larger impact on
teaching English. These issues impede the teaching and learning process in
Bangladesh; in addition these problems make the students to take English as
foreign language.

 

Now come to the points which, I have found, are working as major
catalysts for learning language.M11 

 

 

Teachers’ and students’ attitudes towards grammar

 

 

in any language, Grammar is obviously one of the
major parts of teaching and learning M12 but this grammar has turned itself, because of
current educational system here, to become the very first issue for which
student are taking themselves away from learning English in Bangladesh. Most of
the teachers from the beginning of teaching at college stage are taking the
grammar more important than teaching the language. As a result the language
learning becomes more tough and uninteresting for such non-native English
learners. This
has also the similar effect on the teachers who emphasize on teaching grammar
to the student.  While the teachers
should emphasize on spontaneous learning instead of memorizing the grammatical M13 rule are focused. It is again true for the students who
only want learning grammar rather than learning the language.M14  For this reason, such tendency is not creating
any ideological framework of grammar in students’ brain rather creating a structure
for using the rules in language for a short time. A conversation with college teacher has
given me another issue that there are a few professional competences among the
language teacher for why these kinds of teaching and learning are going on.M15 

 

Here comes to my survey analysis where
there are two groups; one is language teachers and another is language learners
who view “grammar” and its necessity in learning English very differently from
one another. Now a chart will show some basic investigation that how many of
the percentage wants what…

 

 

 

 

Subjects

Participants

Strongly
agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Fact
1

teachers should emphasize on teaching grammar to the students

Teacher

40%

24%

16%

8%

Student

42%

18%

27%

13%

Fact
2

teachers must try to speak English without grammatical errors at
all times

Teacher

32%

48%

13%

4%

Student

21%

44%

34%

1%

Fact
3

Student should use correct
grammar

Teacher

28%

52%

16%

0%

Student

38%

53%

8%

1%

Fact
4

People using English should try
to avoid
grammatical errors

Teacher

22%

61%

15%

2%

    Student

14%

47%

36%

2 %M16 

 

 

 
Here we see most of the students and teacher are giving emphasis on
learning grammar rather than internalizing the language and this kind of
attitude really hindering their teaching and learning the English language
because language is not only a matter of language but it is means of
communication what we need just to internalize. Now to the second point….M17 

 

 

Why and how pronunciation or regional accent matters for EIL or
EFL

 

Jenkins claims, ‘The
EIL community is an international community in which all participants have an
equal claim to membership’. So why the pronunciation matters or why does the student’s
ardent care go for native like pronunciation? To our college student, native
speakers’ like pronunciation is not the main goal but it acts very crucially in
creating the eagerness in student’s minds for learning the target language.
Local accents in English have rights of its’ own. In most cases students’
origin places create some distinctive feature for them which they cannot ignore
and they pronounce some words a bit differently. This kind of impediment bump
them back in communication and in using of those word while communicating. For
them, the student and the teacher of EIL, native pronunciation can act as a
model or a reference for their teaching and learning. If pronunciation and
accent dominate in learning language this learning becomes very tough for such
bilingual learners to achieve the maximum goal of learning EIL for any
Bangladeshi college level student. The goal of such Bangladeshi college level
student is to communicate within intra-national boundary where the importance
of accurate pronunciation remains less significant. On the other hand for the
international communication it may differ in case of pronunciation. Again this
kind of justification or opinion varies from teacher to teacher but for students
most of the cases this opinion has been seen as same. My survey inspects the
impact of pronunciation in learning the language on 100 college students.

 

 

Subjects

Participants

Strongly
agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Fact
1

teachers should teach good pronunciation to students

Teacher

37%

51%

2%

0%

student

30%

51%

8%

0%

Fact
2

Teachers must try to obtain regional accent-free language
proficiency at all times.

Teacher

22%

44%

31%

3 %

student

16%

43%

31%

8%

Fact
3

Students’ pronunciation should sound like standard English

Teacher

28%

50%

22 %

0%

student

28%

50%

22 %

0%

 

Above statistics show that most of the people give more emphasis on the
correct pronunciation but in doing so they sometime ashamed of their incorrect
pronunciation and therefore don’t use the English in classroom. One of my
friends from Jessor cannot pronounce “Which” exactly that is why he always
keeps him away from using the word. This is a simple example but this things
happen very frequently in our classroom. 
Now move onto another thing…

 

 

 

 

Cultural materials and integration of culture

 

 

Culture and language are the two sides of a
coin. We cannot think of language without considering culture and cultural
material. As a means of teaching and learning language, culture can be one of
the major elements through which language teaching can be done very easily. Some
of the cultural contents in teaching English may seem irrelevant to students;
but it is obvious that we cannot learn language without using culture. We see
in university, English is taught through literature which is no way different
from using culture in learning language. Sometimes there may be cultural
conflicts or total presentation of English culture may not be possible but the
minimum use of English culture may help the students to learn English by heart.
Moreover as English is taught as an international language, cultural transgression
may obviously be possible. That should not be our basic concern since we are
tend to new globalized world day by day. The English language has transgressed
the boarder of English and their culture is not the same like before. So in our
case, it should not be the matter of concern and therefore the classrooms
should emphasize more on the source culture and the international target
cultures for teaching and learning the language better.

 

Now we can see
how, in present situation, the incorporation of English culture is justified by
the EIL teacher and learner.

 

 

 

Subjects

 

Strongly
agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly
disagree

Fact 1

English
speaking countries’ cultures should be integrated in higher secondary level

Teacher

21%
 
34%

49%
 
55%

17%
 
7%

13%
 
4%

  Student

 

 

More or less many
students agreed on incorporating the English culture for better learning the
language. My next observation is…

 

 

Attitudes towards choosing textbooks

 

 

Text book is very
important for both teacher and learners in EIL teaching. Many EIL experts
believe that in teaching English or any foreign language, syllabus should be
consisted with wide range of books and those text should be regard less of any
culture. Books of native language can be very helpful for the study of EIL. And
again some of the experts give emphasis on local English writing for learning
language. This is very clear that the local writing books in English are
different from the native writers’. Native books must be containing the English
culture which may be different from the culture and situation of the EIL
learner in Bangladesh. This is of course right. Many scholars argue that local
textbooks reflect the needs of the learner and use of English in the local context
and therefore it enable learners to use English to express themselves with
their individual identity both in intra-national and international society. To
investigate whether our students and teachers accept this suggestion of taking
native books or local books, majority of the students follow the local books
while teachers are to take the native books.

 

 

Subjects

 

Strongly
agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Fact
1

textbooks published in English speaking countries

Teacher

15%
24%

38%
29%

19%
11%

2%
9%

student

 

 

We see an average percent of the
language teachers and students both want to have native writers book for
learning language.

 

 

Now move to next issue…

 

Language knowledge and Pedagogy of EIL

                                      

 

Language teaching
is not all about knowing a language properly rather it is much related with the
pedagogy of teaching the language effectively. In Bangladesh many of the
students go to the British Council or many other places for more effective
learning; but most of the cases 16 to 20 classes don’t improve any one’s language
skill to that much as they expect to be. On the other hand, we see our college
level syllabus and the teaching instructions are not able to make out the
expected goal of language learning for students. The pedagogical procedure is
not properly working with the present situation where some basic changes in
teaching and learning are quintessential. So that here in Bangladesh the
teaching policy of EIL has become more important than the linguistic knowledge.
My survey shows that while most of the teachers are trying to develop their
linguistic knowledge but the student argues on changing the pedagogy of
teaching the target language.

 

 

 

Subjects

 

Strongly
agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly
disagree

Fact
1

teachers should focus
more on language knowledge
than on the pedagogy

Teacher

11%
 
14%

39%
 
33%

37%
 
31%

2%
 
1%

student

 

 

 

 

Today’s English Medium and Bangali Medium Education system

 

 

This is one of
the most interesting parts of my paper as the question arises many paradoxical
thinking among the teachers and students. The most common answer on this topic
was about the environment prepared by the English medium education system. Many
of the language learners argue that English environment prepared by the English
mediums is the basic key point which creates the distinction of linguistic
ability between the English medium students and those who are from bangali
medium. Again many of other argue that environment can not be the only catalyst
to create such distinction because many of the persons in our country who
reached to peak of their profession are not from the English environment but
their systematic education level takes themselves to have enough proficiency in
language learning. Therefore this issue becomes much contradictory although the
fact is obvious that environment is quintessential for learning a language.

 

 

 

Subjects

Participants

Strongly
agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly
disagree

Fact
1

English environment has created linguistics difference

Teacher

54%
67%

29%
19%

10%
6%

1%

student

 

 

So we see English environment is the
basic thing that our colleges should manage for the students’ better learning
of English language.

 

 

Teacher Model for English leaching

 

 

The question
still remains confounding if Native English teacher is good for the people who
are learning English as their second language. In the question of teacher
model, many of our prominent teachers agrees on hiring native speaking teacher
for making the student more efficient in learning language. Yousuf Ali
chowdhury in a conversation with him says that bilingual teacher can be a good
model but native English teachers are better. It is always better to have a native
teacher but the fact becomes less influential when the native teaches at higher
secondary level. A number of teachers believe that a native English teacher can
make the students used to with the proper English pronunciation and environment
than those who don’t have this opportunity; but the fact is that it is not okay
and possible in Bangladeshi college level for all time and for all case. Moreover,
for this reason many teachers added that our government should hire some native
speaker for teaching English more effectively.

 

 

 

 

 

Subjects

 

Strongly
agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Fact
1

Native speaking teachers are more effective teachers for
language students

Teacher

9%
21%

31%
34%

53%
38%

4%
6%

student

Fact
2

Government should hire native speaking teachers from English

Teacher

3%
9%

19%
32%

39%
25%

8%
3%

student

Fact
3

Bilingual non-native speaking teachers are better models to my
students on learning English.

Teacher

57%
22%

31%
41%

7%
9%

2%
5%

student

 

 

 

Basically we need
more efficient bilingual teacher for teaching the students in higher secondary
that means in college level. Native teacher can do good for some students but
the fact becomes clear when we see many students haven’t got the expected goal
after taking course from some native speakers.

 

 

Conclusion

 

In conclusion, I should say that this
is very obvious that we cannot fully transgress all of our boundaries in
learning English language. But through this paper I tried to show some points
to which our education policy maker could give their glance to make our young
learners better and to improve their ability to receive English as an
International language. Though I know this paper has some limitations in taking
out the real situation but I have tried to maximize my scopes and opportunities
to reach my expected goal.

 

At the last point, I want give thanks
to Prof. Shajahan Khan, Prof. Md. Yousuf Ali Chowdhury and Asst. Prof. Delwara
Dipti from Dhaka City College for assisting me to have a survey on teacher and
I want to thank the student of Dhaka City College for co operating me.

 

 

If you do have any queries I will glad
to answer those.

 

Thank you…

 

 

 

 M1EIL
is part of what NOW since I am teaching?

 M2

 M3Give
the sources of the findings

 M4Make
complex sentence

 M5How
do I know it?

 

 M6Needs
rereading

 M7Re-read
and re write

 M8Re-write
in more logical way

 M9Use
correct pronounce reference

 M10Change
the thematic point of view

 M11Re-write
the instruction

 M12

 M13Reconsider
the line

 M14Needs
logical hypothesis

 M15What
professional competencies, explain and give examplles?

 M16Reconsider
the questions

 M17Cannot
give any solution but show what is the situation

x

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