Olive cultivation plays an
important role in the economy of many countries which most of them belong to
the Mediterranean region. In Egypt, the latest statistics of the Ministry of
Agriculture in 2015 sited that the total acreage grown with olive Cvs. reached
about 227683 feddans with production about 698927 ton.
The efficiency of the olive industry greatly depends on harvesting
economic fruit yields that can be used for producing oil and table olives
(Taslimpour and Aslmoshtaghi, 2013). Olive fruits used for oil extraction and
pickling. The oil proportion in the fruit, ranged from 35 to 70% on dry weight
basis (El-Hady et al. 2007).
The olive (Olea europaea L.) flowers are either perfect
(hermaphrodite) or staminate (male). The proportion of perfect and staminate
flowers is genetically determined but also depends on climatic conditions and
the level of fruit production in the previous year (Lavee et al. 2002);
therefore, it may vary from year to year, tree to tree, shoot to shoot and
inflorescence to inflorescence (Fabbri et al. 2004 and Martin & Sibbett
Self-incompatibility is a genetically controlled mechanism that prevents
self-fertilization in plants. Most olive cultivars are self-incompatible or
partially self-compatible and need to be fertilized by compatible pollinizers
to ensure acceptable production (Moutier 2002; Fabbri et al., 2004 and Conner
& Fereres 2005). Furthermore, some cultivars are cross-incompatible and
cannot fertilize each other (Cuevas & Polito 1997). The degree of self
-incompatibility in olive is widely influenced by genetic factors and
environmental conditions (Lavee et al. 2002).
As a result, Self-incompatibility obliges olive growers to plant more
than one cultivar in their orchards to ensure sufficient cross-pollination
(Martin et al., 2005 and Mookerjee et al., 2005). Cross-pollination can
enhance fertilization as shown by reports of higher fruit set and results in
more regular yields even for partially self-fertile cultivars (Cuevas et al.,
2001 and Breton and Bervillé, 2012)
Some researchers also determined that the use of appropriate pollinator
cultivar even in self- fertile cultivars had a positive effect on yield. (
Ferrara et al., 2002). In addition, several studies revealed that the use of
pollinator cultivars increased fruit set and emphasized that having pollinator
cultivars was necessary for orchard establishment (Lombardo et al., 2006;
Vulletin Selak et al., 2006; Farinelli et al., 2008 and Mete et al., 2012).
Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to recognize the best pollinizer for olive cultivars and their
effect on fruit set and quality attributes
of some olive cultivars.