p when the path is available. The intermediate nodes

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CAR protocols predicts the
position of destination vehicle maintain the route by repairing route
as the position changes and find a route to a destination; through
cache maintain by nodes for successful transmissions between various
source and destination pairs. Nodes using CAR protocols send
periodic Hello beacons that contain information on their velocity. On
receives of Hello beacons, the node will record recipient of the
message in its neighbour table and calculate its own velocity vector
and velocity vector of its neighbour. Record entries expire from the
neighbour table when distance between nodes exceeds a threshold or
after two HELLO intervals. The beaconing interval adapts to traffic
density by increasing in frequency when there are few neighbours and
decreasing in frequency when neighbours are abundant. Beacons can
also be backtracks on forwarded data packets. These measures help to
reduce wasted bandwidth and network congestion (James
Bernsen, 2009).

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Spatially aware packet
routing (SAR)

In this protocol, a node
determines its location on the spatial manner and uses the
information obtained from street to calculate a shortest path to a
target destination. The geographic locations paths are embedded into
the header of the packet when the path is available. The intermediate
nodes are included in the source route and it’s position-anchored.
When a node needs to forward a packet, it inspects the packet header
for the next geographic location in the route. When a forwarding node
cannot find a node along the predetermined routing path, then, the
forwarding node can choose to place the packet in a Suspension Buffer
(SB) where it will remain until a suitable node is located along the
routing path. Alternatively, the node can re-compute route path and
store in the packet header
(James
Bernsen, 2009).

Broadcast
Routing Protocol

Broadcast Routing Protocol is
for safety related applications such as collision warnings and
emergency situations, when the need arises, a call is made for the
nodes to send packets to all the nodes in the network situated close
to the sender with high delivery rate and short delay, this protocol
allows information sharing among vehicles participating in the
network, due to the flooding of the network with broadcast messages
, this can leads to increase in bandwidth usage
(Yue Liu, 2009 )

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