Role used as medications for cancer treatment. Carotenoids have


Role of carotenoids in
lung diseases

are natural pigments ranging from yellow to red that are present in fruits and
vegetables. In carotenoids A-Carotene, b-carotene, b-cryptoxanthin, lutein,
zeaxanthin, and lycopene are most predominant and consisting of 90% of
circulating carotenoids. Carotenoids play an important role in carcinogenesis
and used as medications for cancer treatment. Carotenoids have anti-cancer
properties by following different mechanisms including anti-oxidation, immunity
increasing, suppression of tumorigenesis and malignant transformation,
suppression of cell proliferation, and metabolism to retinoids which
successively contribute to cellular differentiation.

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Dietary antioxidants
have tendency to enhance host antioxidant defenses by suppression of oxidative
stress. Lycopene is a carotenoid with powerful antioxidant that is used in
asthma. In asthmatic patient’s lycopene or lycopene-rich supplement decrease
bronchoconstriction and neutrophil influx and also elastase activity in airway.
Dietary antioxidants have potential effects when used with other nutrients as a
part of whole food other than separately use them.

and lung cancer are serious health problems worldwide that cause significant
morbidity and mortality. Lung cancer is most common malignancy that causes
deaths around the world. It is estimated that 1.35 million people diagnosed
from lung cancer as well as 1.18 million people die every year. Due to cigarette
smoking 90 to 95% people acquire lung cancer in North America and Europe.
According to the world health organization, in 2009 9.4 million incident cases
of tuberculosis and 1.7 million people died. Tuberculosis that is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is infects
one third of world’s population.

In treatment
pharmacological dose of beta-carotene give no protection against lung cancer as
compared to placebo. In fact supplemental beta-carotene enhanced lung cancer
risk in heavy smokers. But beta-carotene at dietary level has been inverse
effect with lung cancer treatment. High consumption of fruits and vegetables
with beta-carotene has beneficial affects against lung cancer.

Impact of carotenoids
on tuberculosis risk

Over the past
150 years, although incidence and mortality of tuberculosis have fallen
steadily in North America and Europe, but it remains top global cause of deaths
from infections. The World Health Organization reported that 10.4 million cases
reported in 2015 by which 1.8 million dies due to tuberculosis in low and
middle income countries. The death rate of tuberculosis decreases before the
availability of either BCG or effective chemotherapy in high income countries.
The country level data also showed that with the passage of time the incidence
of tuberculosis strongly decline with human development.

Multiple lines
of evidence propose that the link between tuberculosis and socioeconomic status
arbitrated by nutritional status. Studies in humans give information that under
nutrition enhance the chances of tuberculosis and also documented that
micronutrient deficiencies in persons have tuberculosis disease. Notably,
studies of vitamin A and tuberculosis that have been done in populations have
low risk of tuberculosis and nutritional deficits, and their results were

Despite low
data availability on tuberculosis risk, various previous knowledge supports the
role of vitamin A in tuberculosis infections. First time in 1920 Green,
Mellanby, and colleagues proposed that vitamin A is an “anti-infective”
agent.  Vitamin A supplementation
decrease death rate in children with measeles by 58% and deficiency of vitamin
A in children contributes to mortality from diarrheal diseases and measles,
about 1.7% of all deaths in children


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