Something typically made by a human being, usually to demonstrate a cultural or historical interest, is an artifact. An artifact can be anything that ties to historical beliefs or events. Artifacts help us not only understand beliefs of people from that time period, but it also helps us get a better understanding of their religious beliefs, culture, the type of life they lived, and even how their king and queen ruled over everything. Artifact 1: Equestrian Statue of Marcus AureliusFor my first artifact, I chose an artifact from the Classical Antiquity period. The sculpture was is a work of art found from Greece/Rome, created in 175 CE. The Equestrian Statue of Marcus stands as a very unique statue, it stands about 4.24 meters tall, and is gilded bronze (see Appendix, Artifact 1). The piece seems to have been originally cast, using the lost-wax technique on the horse and rider. The horse and rider cast seems to have been done in multiple pieces and then later soldered together after casting. While looking carefully at the statue, if you look close enough, the rider’s size scale is bigger than it should be to properly fit the horse’s scale. This was meant to be so slight it was noticeable but not enough to make the overall look of the sculpture to be thrown off. The rider’s size is bigger to signify his importance and how he is bigger than life (Khan Academy). Many historians believe the horse’s hoof is raised and meant to be placed over another piece that was sculpted to sit underneath and beg for mercy, showing that the emperor is victorious (Khan Academy). The sculpture, Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius is a sculpture that was meant to portray and honor emperors for singular military and civic achievements, and their return home. There were originally 22 of these great pieces, with other emperors, but very little of that number made it through the antiquity. It was very common for them to not last long because it was a common practice to melt them down later to reuse the bronze for coins, or other sculptures (History of Equine Sculptures). The one of 22 to make it through the antiquity that was live like, was the Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, which was important because it was used for the consideration of monumental dedications. This statue was the one to not be melted down, because it was thought to have represented Constantine the emperor who made christianity legal in the Roman empire. The Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, was the one statue to survive the antiquity time period. Although it wasn’t the only one to have been made, it’s the only one to have had such a big impact on human society. Not only had it been thought to have been saved due to making christianity legal, but because it showed his strength and a leader and his authority in society. The statue shows how he has complete control over the horse, how on the left side the rider’s hand is slightly pulling back on what would be the riens, if they were there, and how the horse’s head is slightly tilted left. Yet on the right side, the rider’s arm is stretched out and reaching to others while the horse’s right side seems to be in motion, leaning right. This shows how he has full control and command over this very powerful animal. This shows how Marcus Aurelius has full control and command, and creates unity.Artifact 2: Model Burst of Queen Nefertiti For my second artifact, I chose the Thutmose, Model Burst of Queen Nefertiti originally from Egypt (see Appendix, Artifact 2). The Thutmose, Model Burst of Queen Nefertiti, is from the 14th century, American period, and New kingdom. Created in c. 1340 BCE, and lost for years the sculpture was finally found in 1912. The name of this sculpture means “a beautiful woman has arrived”, created to represent not just her beauty, but how powerful she was. The sculpture has an individualized face and the special crown, tall, flat-topped, decorated with a ribbon and the remains of a uraeus at the front identifying the statue as Nefertiti (Gogo). In the sculpture, she is portrayed as a grown women with a harmonic and balanced beauty which is not disturbed by the tiny folds under her eyes and chin as well as the slightly sunken cheeks (Verein zur Förderung). Her eyes are inlaid with with crystal and the pupil attached with black coloured wax, the second eye- inlay was never carried out (Gogo). The Thutmose, Model Burst of Queen Nefertiti, was significant to this time period because she represents the beauty and power she held throughout her time. Nefertiti and her husband married when she was 15, ran the entire empire and had many children. They were known for being a power couple, as they ruled over everyone and everything. The unique thing about the two one them, was it seemed they had an actual romantic bond between them, which is very rare for most arranged marriages. The two of them also created their own religion, worshiping Aten, the sun God. This piece represents not only Nefertiti, but her journey throughout her life, rise to power/royalty, how she was the most powerful women to ever rule, and how her and her husband created a new religion that had many people follow. During c. 1340 BCE, the 14th century, this sculpture was created after Nefertiti had died. After this time period, the piece had gone missing and not found again until 1912 during an evacuation of a German Orient. So much time had gone by, to the point where no one knew about her, and no one was looking for her, people say she was looking for us. After being found, the next day it had been brought to Germany. This piece is still very relevant, because since 1925, Egypt has been trying to get their beloved Nefertiti sculpture back, and have continued trying to get the piece back after years of her being in the hands of many German leaders. Germany had once considered giving her back until Hitler demanded she stayed. And in more recent years, German culture minister Bernd Neumann later stated that Germany is now the lawful owner of the figure Artifact 3: Terracotta Warriors For my third artifact, I chose the Terracotta Warriors from the mausoleum of the first Qin emperor of China. The Terracotta Warriors date back to c. 210 B.C.E. The army was used in China’s first emperor’s tomb. Qin Shi Huang originally took the name Ying Zheng but changed it. Ying Zheng took thrown at the age of 13 in 246 B.C, and by 221 B.C he had unified a collection of surrounding kingdoms. Qin Shihuang achieved many things throughout his life, but his biggest purpose was even bigger; he set out to to conquer death as well. He wanted to achieve immortality, and in order to do so, he built his own tomb underground city guarded by a life size army including over 7,000 warriors, infantrymen, chariots, horses and weaponry. They were also meant to accompany into the afterlife. When China was reunited in 221 B.C.E under King Chang of the Qin kingdom from the western edge of the old Zhou kingdom. Even before uniting China, Shi Huangdi began his own mausoleum at Lingtong, in Shanxi province. This project continued throughout his life and after his death, until rebellion abruptly ended the dynasty in 206 B.C.E but not until its accidental discovery in 1974 was the army of clay soldiers. Four pits had been evacuated, only three to have been filled with the terracotta soldiers, horse-drawn chariots, and weapons. Each soldier given it’s own face to represent people from different places in China, and positioned according to their rank in the army (Khan Academy). The Terracotta Warriors are a big part of China’s history/past. The army was built to accompany China’s first emperor into the afterlife so he could continue conquering even in death. Immediately at the age of 13, he started planning his burial, to make sure it was perfect (Khan Academy). Qin Shi Huang is thought of as a military genius, and although his methods included massacres and destruction, some claim his ultimate success of being able to join together states together justifies the violence that had been caused. These marble statues impact society today, because it gives us a better understanding as of what happened, thought processes that were thought through and beliefs that were popular at that time period.Artifact 4: GunpowderFor my third artifact, I have chosen gunpowder (see Appendix, Artifact 4). Gunpowder was originally created around A.D 850 in China when scientists had been playing around with many powders trying to make a powder for immortality. They had been using powders like a powerful oxidizing agent potassium nitrate mixed with sulfur and charcoal. This mixture resulted in smoke, and flames. After being discovered, gunpowder had first been used for fireworks, until it became a very popular item and was also used during battle. Gunpowder was used as “flying fire” which was an arrow fixed with a tube of gunpowder that ignited and would propel itself across enemy lines (Whipps). While the Mongolians had been trying to invade and take over China, China used flying fire to reign down on the Mongols so they could succeed and not be taken over. From the time gunpowder was created to around the 13th century, gunpowder had been a Chinese monopoly until Europe and the Islamic World had caught on and joined in on using this deadly mixture. Not long after, new ways were being found for using gunpowder, like cannons,and grenades (Whipps). Gunpowder had been becoming more and more popular throughout time, and was continuously being used for battle by many armies. Gunpowder had been used so often, new ways for using it were being found left and right, it wasn’t until the 15th century though that the first handgun had been created. Gunpowder has impacted the world in so many ways. Gunpowder has been used in many ways throughout history. Originally being used for fireworks, until many new ways for gunpowder had been found like in arrows, cannons, grenades, handguns and many more. Soldiers/armies would use gunpowder in battle to get a leg up on their rivals and achieve their goals. For many years only China used this tactic until it started spreading. Today gunpowder is still being used all the time throughout the whole world. It’s used to help armies, and soldiers while in war, has made hunting easier, and is used in the military. Gunpowder has made everything so much easier, because it’s an easy mixture to make, but a deadly mixture to use.Artifact 5: Seated Ganesha, Indian Sculpture For my fifth artifact, I chose a Seated Ganesha, which is a sculpture from India (see Appendix, Artifact 5). The Seated Ganesha is one of the most beloved deities in the Hindu pantheon of gods dating all the way back to 1300-1400 C.E, it is about 18.4 centimeters tall. This sculpture is meant to represent Ganesh, the lord of good fortune. Ganesh provides prosperity, good fortune, success, and is the Lord of beginnings and the remover of obstacles of both material and spirited kinds (Kashgar). The Hindu God of auspiciousness, Ganesha is popularly accepted as the first son of Shiva and Parvati (Kashgar). The Seated Ganesha sculpture is usually the body of a man, with the head of an elephant. In many pictures or sculptures, the elephant will have anywhere from two to sixteen arms around him. Over time, many sculptures and paintings of him can be found in many different poses, representing the removal of any or all obstacles. Some poses he can be found in are, sitting down, standing up, dancing, doing a yoga pose, or even sitting in his mother’s lap. He can also be found holding many different items, including one of his own tusks that has been broken off at one point, and this represents different obstacles one is dealing with. Many stories have been told over the years, as of how exactly Ganesha came to be. Many said he was made or found by either Shiva, or Parvati, or found by both. Or that maybe he was created, by either one or both of them. One story as of how Ganesha got an elephant head is that the goddess Parvati, wanted to take a bath, so she created a boy and assigned him to guard the entrance of her bathroom. When her husband Shiva returned home from one of his interminable battles, he was denied access by Ganesh, he killed the boy in a fit to fetch the head of the first dead creature they could fine, which happened to be an elephant (Kashgar). The elephant was, and is such an important artifact, because it represent the most loved God, Ganesha. He brought them only good luck, and helped people in the time of need, to this day sculptures and paintings are still being made to represent Ganesha. He was and will forever bring people prosperity and success. Something typically made by a human being, usually to demonstrate a cultural or historical interest, is an artifact. An artifact can be anything that ties to historical beliefs or events. Artifacts help us not only understand beliefs of people from that time period, but it also helps us get a better understanding of their religious beliefs, culture, the type of life they lived, and even how their king and queen ruled over everything. One artifact I’ve chosen from most recent times, is a light bulb. The light bulb was created to bring light into our lives when it’s dark. I think someday when future historians look back on the invention of the light bulb, they will think we were geniuses. They will most likely have lights that shine from a dot sized bulb, that are brighter than ever, but it had to start somewhere, and that’s the light bulb.Artifact 6 Light Bulb For my my final artifact, that is more recent, I chose to do the light bulb (see Appendix, Artifact 6). The light bulb was created by many people but the person who got the most recognition was Thomas Edison. The light bulb was used for the same reason they are used today, to bring light into our days, and help us see when it’s dark. Originally more than just Thomas Edison had created the light bulb, it started with Joseph Swan when he invented it first in the United Kingdom. Joseph Swan’s invention of the lightbulb worked, but not for actual use. To seal off exposure to oxygen, the filaments were placed in vacuum tubes, although they weren’t as effective as the ones today, it didn’t work right. Seeing the problem of Joseph Swan’s version, Thomas Edison was able to work off that and create his own that worked better and more efficiently. The light bulb works when electricity is sent through a metal wire called a filament. A filament is made of tungsten and metal. When the filament is heated up from resistance, it gets so hot to the point where it glows, creating light to shine from it (Palermo).Joseph Swan’s invention of the lightbulb worked, but not for actual use. To seal off exposure to oxygen, the filaments were placed in vacuum tubes, although they weren’t as effective as the ones today, it didn’t work right. Seeing the problem of Joseph Swan’s version, Thomas Edison was able to work off that and create his own that worked better and more efficiently. The light bulb works when electricity is sent through a metal wire called a filament. A filament is made of tungsten and metal. When the filament is heated up from resistance, it gets so hot to the point where it glows, creating light to shine from it. The light bulb was an important invention in this time period, because it was very useful, and very affordable to everyone. The light bulb had a very strong impact on the world then and now. When both Thomas Edison and Joseph Swan were fighting for the rights of who invented it, they both ended up working together, and creating the “Edison-Swan United”. The “Edison-Swan United” became the world’s largest manufacturers of light bulbs in this time period(Palermo). Today we still use light bulbs, in everyday life. Not only do we use them in our houses, but we have the ability to put them in our cars, on our christmas tree, in our ovens, and even put them outside so they are ran by solar power. Light bulbs have progressed in so many ways, and will only continue progressing.