This essay is on information
about cervical cancer. The impact it has on lives and the steps that has been
done throughout the years to reduce this health issue. Since this health-related
topic affects women a lot all worldwide, there should be an investment done by
the public health to tackle the risks implicated by cervical cancer.
Cervical cancer is a cancer
that only develops in women. It develops in the cervix, it is also known as the
entrance to the womb. Cervical cancer is known to have no symptoms in its early
stages. If there are any symptoms to occur they will be bleeding in between
periods, after sex, or after women menopause. Sometimes it may show symptoms
through vaginal discharges and the discharge may contain an unusual none
pleasant odour. When the cervical cancer advances it usually spreads to the
surrounding tissues and organs, that triggers more symptoms which are severe
compared to the early stages. These symptoms include swelling of kidneys
causing serious back pain, weight and appetite loss, uncontrolled bladder, pain
in the bones and feeling week all the time (NHS Choices, 2015).
Cervical cancer affects women
of different age groups, but it is more common in women of ages 30 to 45 and it
is also rare to develop in women under the age of 25. Cervical cancer is caused
by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and it is a sexual transmitted infection.
That is why the government in the UK is providing vaccination to young girls at
early age, before sexual activities to decrease the potential exposure of HPV
virus. Even though sexual activities are normal, wearing condoms is advisable
to protect both partners from HPV.
In 2014 cervical cancer
research new cases has been found to be about 3,200 in the UK and roughly about
9 cases diagnosed every day. Cervical cancer is known to be in the top 20 of
the common cancers in the UK 2014. 2012 to 2014 cases show that 52% of cervical
cancer cases in the UK for each year, females under the age of 45 are being
diagnosed. It is estimated that there could be an increase of 43% in cervical
cancer rates in the UK between 2014 to 2035. However, per 100,000 females there
going to 17 cases by 2035 (Cancer Research UK, no date). Cervical cancer is
predominantly found in white females than in the minority, whereas to Asian
females and black females are less likely common.
The number of deaths rates for
cervical cancer in the UK was around 890 in 2014, more than 2 deaths per day.
Cervical cancer is classified as the seventeenth most common death caused by
cancer in women and 47% of the cervical cancer deaths are in the females aged
65 and over in the UK 2012 to 2014. Whereas to mortality rates for 85 to 89
ages rates are high. Studies has shown that mortality rates have decreased by
23% in the past 10 years. The rates are expected to fall by 7% between 2014 to
2035. In England cervical cancer deaths are more common in females from
disadvantaged areas. In the European countries, UK’s mortality rate has been
found to be the lowest at ninth place and about 24,000 women were estimated to
have died from cervical cancer in 2012. Worldwide research, there is an
estimation of more than 265,000 of women who lost their lives to cervical
cancer in 2012.
The UK National Screening
Committee, after a successful pilot programme. A recommendation was made about
samples for screening, it is said the samples are to be tested for human
papilloma virus (HPV) first. The cervical screening process has been changed to
benefit women in getting more accurate tests. These tests are to be done all
over England as the main cervical disease screening test. The current process
used to get sample is the cytology test, they use this process to examine
abnormal cells in which sometimes. This method can sometimes miss the abnormal
cells due to them duplicating the normal cells. Which can lead to people being
misdiagnosed resulting to normal cells appearing as abnormal cells.
The new testing focus on tests
for HPV first, that way if HPV is detected it will be useful to determine
whether abnormal cells are developing since 99.7% of cervical cancers are
caused by the HPV infection. The process also prevents overtreatment and
preventing anxiety in women. Research shows that cervical cancer screening
saves about 4,500 lives each year. This was set in the cancer strategy for
England 2015, improvement to the cervical screening programme (GOV.UK, 2016). Almost 63% of women in England and Wales
diagnosed with cervical cancer survives the diseases for over 10 years 2010 to
2011. Around 67% of women with cervical cancer can survive five years or more.
The highest survival rate was for women under 40 years old 2009 to 2013.
Cervical screening is one of
the methods of cervical cancer prevention. It helps with detection of cancerous
abnormal cells. As the cancer strategy 2015 plan to improve on the screening.
The UK national Screening committee they have already had a break through with
the new testing method for cervical cancer. They made it easier to detect if
there’s any cancer cells in the Cervix by running tests which only tests that
detects if the HPV is present in the cells. This screening is even proven to save more
lives, since in England the NHS has started using this test as the primary
cervical screening. In 2016 the UK Screening Committee made a recommendation to
roll out the test all over the country, but no plans were made to offer this
screening in Northen Ireland and Scotland, although England and Wales are
committed to this (Cancer Research UK, 2016).
This new break through done by
the UK National Committee success on the new screening test for HPV detection
should be made available worldwide. As stated in the Cancer Research that there
were no plans made to offer the new screening test in Northen Ireland and
Scotland. This should be made accessible in all countries to reduce the number
off overtreatments. They are also a lot cervical cancer awareness campaigns in
the UK, they need to brunch out to other developing countries with some people
who have no knowledge in the subject.
There have been studies done
in South-East Nigeria among urban residential women on effects of peer health
education on perception and cervical cancer screening practice. In sub-Saharan
Africa cervical cancer is evidently known to be common among women. It is
currently ranked top 2 common cancer that is common in women in Nigeria. Around
14,550 of women in Nigeria are being diagnosed with cervical cancer, and around
9659 dies from the disease every year. There is an estimation of 22,914 women
to develop cancer per year, whereas to 16,261 will die by 2025 (BMC Women’s
Effective female education on
cervical cancer screening, compared to other strategies has been recognised as
a method of raising awareness of cervical cancer screening services. The study
was done to review whether peer health education would have an impact on
women’s cervical cancer and screening perception. The study was done in the
As evidenced from the study
research in South-East Nigeria, some women from the world developing countries
unaware about the cervical cancer and screening due to less education on the
issue and information. Lack of expertise to educate women on importance of
cervical screening has been a barrier. It will be in the best interest for
women who are not fully aware to get full support from health professionals who
have knowledge with the subject. The World Health Organisation must play a part
in recruiting some knowledgeable health professional on the issues to areas
which is really in need of peer health education. There are also issues of the
non-availability of the screening services. It is also shown that most women
are more familiar with pap test and it is probably because it is the most
available and affordable method.
As cervical cancer is common
in women, it also has treatment options. Some of the treatment cause harm to
the reproductive organs, after some medical procedures it is impossible for a
woman to get pregnant e.g. in a hysterectomy removal of the uterus, and results
after radiotherapy the ovaries stops working, causing infertility. These are
some of the barriers associated with cervical cancer treatment. There should be
more research done by the specialists to improve on the treatment and reduce
the rate of infertility caused by cervical cancer, it will also reduce the
risks of women who suffer from depression. Also offering free counselling to
women before and after their treatment is necessary.
Referring to the information
discussed above with researches and studies done in different countries or
areas. Cervical cancer is one of the top 20 common cancers that needs money to
spend on. Mostly because it is a cancer that affects women’s health and the
cervix. The current treatment offered for these diseases also harm and cause
women to be infertile. There need to be more campaigns funded to raise awareness
of the cancer worldwide to encourage women of the ages 25 to 64 to be aware
also of the services provided to tackle the issue. In having the cancerous
cells earlier to prevent serious treatment that also leave pain in women’s
The money should also be spent
on recruiting volunteers who travels to different parts of the world to do more
research on progress over the years done for cervical cancer and screening.
Some of the volunteers should be spent to educate women on how critically
serious this disease is, as written in one of the journals it is found that
some women do not take cervical cancer as an important issue. National
Institute for Health Research (2016) funded trial tests several approaches to
increase screening uptake in young women especially the ones having their first
In less developed countries or
regions cervical cancer has been found to be the second common cancer in women.
Through the researches done there has been high rates of deaths caused by
cervical cancer of about 85% worldwide. The disease is less likely to be
detected in developing countries because of limited access to cervical
screening. Due to the limited access of the screening, it can be a disadvantage
to any women who has abnormal cells which are undetected the disease can
develop, and it cannot be seen until there are signs and symptoms.
In conclusion cervical cancer,
can be prevented by screening since there have been break through to upgrade
the screening tests over the years to be able to detect abnormal cells.
However, there are risks that comes with treatments when one is diagnosed with
cervical cancer which includes losing ovaries and which makes it more an issue
to fund and get more research done since screening saves over 90% of women’s