Today To create a biodiesel blend it can be

demand of automobiles is more due to population growth has result in great
demand for petroleum products. With crude oil reserves estimated to last for
few decades, there have been many researcher find alternate fuels. The depletion of
crude oil could reason a primary effect on the transportation sector. Biodiesel
is a clean burning alternative biofuel, which is produced from Sunflower,
karanja, jatropha, waste cooking oil, thumba, soybeans, animal fats, alge etc.
These are domestic and renewable source. The extracted crude oil cannot be used
as a directly in diesel engine because it has a high viscosity; due to high
viscosity of pure vegetable oils it will be responsible for high engine
deposits and lubricating oil thickening. That would reduce the fuel atomization
and increase fuel spray penetration. To create a biodiesel blend it can be
blended with conventional diesel. Biodiesel is manufacture from a chemical
process which is known as transesterification. Biofuels are mono alkyl esters
of long chain fatty acid derived from renewable biological sources. Biofules can
be directly used in the compression ignition engine without modify of existing
engine. Biodiesel fuel is a clean burning resource and it is the future of the


Biodiesel derived from vegetable oils,
waste cooking oil is the alternative fuel to blend with diesel. Following reason
biodiesel can be used in the engine.

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(1)   Biodiesel
is made from vegetable, waste cooking oil, alge etc.

(2)   Biodiesel
can be used without any changes in existing engine.

(3)   Biodiesel
have no contained sulfur, aromatic, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter.


Much research work has
been done how to use vegetable oil both in its pure form and blended form. Many
project have been shown that the usage of vegetable oils in pure form is
possible but not preferable with the advent of the industrial revolution, the
use of energy in the form of fossil fuels began, this occurred in stages, from
the exploration of coal deposits to the exploitation of oil and natural gas
but, how long can we depend on this declining fossil fuels to run our car
engine, to light our kitchen stove. The secondary viscosity of vegetable oils
and the low instability influences those atomization Furthermore spread example
for fuel, prompting inadequate burning What’s more extreme carbon deposits,
injector gagging What’s more piston ring staying. Those routines utilized to
decrease viscosity need aid mixing for diesel, emulsification, pyrolysis,

oil can be effectively replacing diesel fuel. Application of diesel oil is in
the transport sector, agriculture form and industries for generating
electricity, running pumps and tractors. The entire use of diesel oil can be
substituted with vegetable oil. The properties of sunflower oil very close
together diesel. The sunflower oil can also be converted to bio-diesel and used
in automobile sector.

There are
various advantages of using sunflower oil:

(1) The cost of 1 liter sunflower oil is
approx. Rs. 80/- hence it is approx. same price of diesel.

(2) Sunflower oil as fuels can provide
good lubrication to the engine.

      (3) No toxic gases emission, no
greenhouse gas emission.

(4)    Sunflower seeds can be grown in waste lands
and other lands with low nutritional content. The plant is also a nitrogen

(5)   The
dependence on sunflower oil would generate employment in rural areas.


are fossil fuel substitutes that can be made from a range of agricultural crops
and other sources of biomass. Any hydrocarbon fuel that is produced from
organic matter (living or once living material) in a short period of time –
days, weeks, or even months, is considered as biofuel. They are considered as
an alternative source of energy Importance:

Energy security – increasing oil prices,
need for alternative source of energy

To decrease greenhouse gas emission

To promote rural development

















                                                    Block diagram of biofuel: 1.1

Biodiesel can be used in
pure biodiesel or blended with petroleum diesel. Mostly blends use B5 (5%
biodiesel), B15 (5% biodiesel), and B20(20% biodiesel).

 B00 fuel (Pure Diesel)

 B10 fuel (90% Diesel + 10% Biodiesel)

 B15 fuel (85% Diesel + 15% Biodiesel)

 B20 fuel (80% Diesel + 20% Biodiesel)

 B25 fuel (75% Diesel + 25% Biodiesel)

 B30 fuel (70% Diesel + 30% Biodiesel

Mostly use of biodiesel
blends up to B5 or up to B20 for practical assessment. Using the wrong blends
can be damage the engine. Basically two type of biofuel first generation and second
generation bio fuels. In First generation biofuel is made from sugar, starchy
crops, vegetable oil or animal fat using conventional technology like
biodiesel, biogas, bio alcohols and Second generation biofuel is produced from
suitable feedstock like bioethanol, bio hydrogen diesel, algae fuel, cellulose
fuel,wood diesel.

estimated consumption of diesel in the world at the end of the year 2005 was
960 billion liters. On the other hand, the production of biodiesel during the
same year was 4.2 billion liters . For example, assuming that 2% of diesel was
replaced with biodiesel, it would mean an increase of 15 billion liters in the
biodiesel global production. In biodiesel plant different type of biodiesel oil
use according to their availability, cost, efficiency and environment concern.




Palm oil


Soy oil


Rapeseed oil


Sunflower oil


Cotton oil


Palm oil (seed)


Peanut oil


Coconut oil


Olive oil



1.World production of vegetable oils, 2008/2009.

Palm oil: Palm
oil is retrieved from the Palm fruit. The scientific name of palm oil is elaeis
guineensis and its popular name: African oil palm. Columbia is largest producer
of palm oil.

Rapeseed or canola oil: Rapeseed
is a specie oil seed in the cruciferous family. Many of the species of this family
have been their roots, stems, flowers and seeds. When the seeds of rapeseed are
crushed we can obtain oil.

oil: Sunflower belongs at the family of asteraceae, whose scientific name is Helianthus annuus. Sunflower oil
extracted from sunflower seeds. Sunflower oil is high quality nature due to low
percentage of saturated fatty acids and a high percentage of unsaturated fatty

Oil: Karanja oil is extracted from seeds of Karanja tree.
Its scientific name is Pongamia glabra. Karanja seed commonly found in india. Karanja
Oil is used in agriculture and pharmacy form such as   neem oil.


Fossil fuels: Fossil fuels concern with any fuel that comes
from the earth that’s generated by the fossilization method such as coal, natural gas and crude oil.  Fossil fuel generate
by animal, plant in the earth thousand years ago. Fossil fuel is non renewable

1.1 Advantages
of fossil fuels: A major advantage of fossil fuels is their capacity to generate
much amounts of electricity in a single station. 

Fossil fuels are very easy to
Become coal cost effective when
it is used in power plants. Abundant supply of coal in power plant.
Supply of oil and gas to the
power stations can be use of pipes making it a very easy task. 
 Gases are use in power plants very
efficient manner.
Power stations can be
constructed in almost any location that makes use of fossil fuel. This is
feasible so long as much amount of fuel can be easily supply to the power

1.2 Disadvantages of fossil Fuels

Pollution is a major disadvantage of fossil fuels. Burning
of coal produces carbon dioxide; raise the temperature in the earth cause a greenhouse
effect. This is the primary cause of the global warming experienced by the
earth today. 

Burning of coal produces carbon dioxide compared to burning
oil or gas. Additionally, coal also emitted Sulfur dioxide cause acid

Environmentally, the mining of coal effects within the
destruction of wide regions of land. Mining this fossil fuel is also tough
lives of miners. Coal mining is taken into consideration one of the most
dangerous jobs in the global.

 Power stations that
utilize coal need huge amounts of gas. In other phrases, they now not simplest
need truckloads but trainloads of coal on a regular foundation to hold
operating and producing power. This only method that coal-fired electricity
plants must have reserves of coal in a large area near the plant life region.

Use of natural gas can cause ugly odors and some problems
issue with transportation. 

When become leaks of tanker, oil spill in the sea, cause
water pollution and posse’s environmental hazards in the sea. Combustion of crude
oil release toxic product which cause air pollution.


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